Commit da57a369 authored by Mark Rutland's avatar Mark Rutland Committed by Catalin Marinas

arm64: Enable TEXT_OFFSET fuzzing

The arm64 Image header contains a text_offset field which bootloaders
are supposed to read to determine the offset (from a 2MB aligned "start
of memory" per booting.txt) at which to load the kernel. The offset is
not well respected by bootloaders at present, and due to the lack of
variation there is little incentive to support it. This is unfortunate
for the sake of future kernels where we may wish to vary the text offset
(even zeroing it).

This patch adds options to arm64 to enable fuzz-testing of text_offset.
CONFIG_ARM64_RANDOMIZE_TEXT_OFFSET forces the text offset to a random
16-byte aligned value value in the range [0..2MB) upon a build of the
kernel. It is recommended that distribution kernels enable randomization
to test bootloaders such that any compliance issues can be fixed early.
Signed-off-by: default avatarMark Rutland <>
Acked-by: default avatarTom Rini <>
Acked-by: default avatarWill Deacon <>
Signed-off-by: default avatarCatalin Marinas <>
parent a2c1d73b
......@@ -28,4 +28,19 @@ config PID_IN_CONTEXTIDR
instructions during context switch. Say Y here only if you are
planning to use hardware trace tools with this kernel.
bool "Randomize TEXT_OFFSET at build time"
Say Y here if you want the image load offset (AKA TEXT_OFFSET)
of the kernel to be randomized at build-time. When selected,
this option will cause TEXT_OFFSET to be randomized upon any
build of the kernel, and the offset will be reflected in the
text_offset field of the resulting Image. This can be used to
fuzz-test bootloaders which respect text_offset.
This option is intended for bootloader and/or kernel testing
only. Bootloaders must make no assumptions regarding the value
of TEXT_OFFSET and platforms must not require a specific
......@@ -38,7 +38,11 @@ CHECKFLAGS += -D__aarch64__
head-y := arch/arm64/kernel/head.o
# The byte offset of the kernel image in RAM from the start of RAM.
TEXT_OFFSET := $(shell awk 'BEGIN {srand(); printf "0x%04x0\n", int(65535 * rand())}')
TEXT_OFFSET := 0x00080000
......@@ -37,8 +37,12 @@
#if (KERNEL_RAM_VADDR & 0xfffff) != 0x80000
#error KERNEL_RAM_VADDR must start at 0xXXX80000
#if (TEXT_OFFSET & 0xf) != 0
#error TEXT_OFFSET must be at least 16B aligned
#elif (PAGE_OFFSET & 0xfffff) != 0
#error PAGE_OFFSET must be at least 2MB aligned
#elif TEXT_OFFSET > 0xfffff
#error TEXT_OFFSET must be less than 2MB
.macro pgtbl, ttb0, ttb1, virt_to_phys
......@@ -125,3 +125,8 @@ SECTIONS
ASSERT(((__hyp_idmap_text_start + PAGE_SIZE) > __hyp_idmap_text_end),
"HYP init code too big")
* If padding is applied before .head.text, virt<->phys conversions will fail.
ASSERT(_text == (PAGE_OFFSET + TEXT_OFFSET), "HEAD is misaligned")
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