1. 09 Dec, 2017 1 commit
  2. 02 Nov, 2017 1 commit
    • Greg Kroah-Hartman's avatar
      License cleanup: add SPDX GPL-2.0 license identifier to files with no license · b2441318
      Greg Kroah-Hartman authored
      Many source files in the tree are missing licensing information, which
      makes it harder for compliance tools to determine the correct license.
      
      By default all files without license information are under the default
      license of the kernel, which is GPL version 2.
      
      Update the files which contain no license information with the 'GPL-2.0'
      SPDX license identifier.  The SPDX identifier is a legally binding
      shorthand, which can be used instead of the full boiler plate text.
      
      This patch is based on work done by Thomas Gleixner and Kate Stewart and
      Philippe Ombredanne.
      
      How this work was done:
      
      Patches were generated and checked against linux-4.14-rc6 for a subset of
      the use cases:
       - file had no licensing information it it.
       - file was a */uapi/* one with no licensing information in it,
       - file was a */uapi/* one with existing licensing information,
      
      Further patches will be generated in subsequent months to fix up cases
      where non-standard license headers were used, and references to license
      had to be inferred by heuristics based on keywords.
      
      The analysis to determine which SPDX License Identifier to be applied to
      a file was done in a spreadsheet of side by side results from of the
      output of two independent scanners (ScanCode & Windriver) producing SPDX
      tag:value files created by Philippe Ombredanne.  Philippe prepared the
      base worksheet, and did an initial spot review of a few 1000 files.
      
      The 4.13 kernel was the starting point of the analysis with 60,537 files
      assessed.  Kate Stewart did a file by file comparison of the scanner
      results in the spreadsheet to determine which SPDX license identifier(s)
      to be applied to the file. She confirmed any determination that was not
      immediately clear with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
      
      Criteria used to select files for SPDX license identifier tagging was:
       - Files considered eligible had to be source code files.
       - Make and config files were included as candidates if they contained >5
         lines of source
       - File already had some variant of a license header in it (even if <5
         lines).
      
      All documentation files were explicitly excluded.
      
      The following heuristics were used to determine which SPDX license
      identifiers to apply.
      
       - when both scanners couldn't find any license traces, file was
         considered to have no license information in it, and the top level
         COPYING file license applied.
      
         For non */uapi/* files that summary was:
      
         SPDX license identifier                            # files
         ---------------------------------------------------|-------
         GPL-2.0                                              11139
      
         and resulted in the first patch in this series.
      
         If that file was a */uapi/* path one, it was "GPL-2.0 WITH
         Linux-syscall-note" otherwise it was "GPL-2.0".  Results of that was:
      
         SPDX license identifier                            # files
         ---------------------------------------------------|-------
         GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note                        930
      
         and resulted in the second patch in this series.
      
       - if a file had some form of licensing information in it, and was one
         of the */uapi/* ones, it was denoted with the Linux-syscall-note if
         any GPL family license was found in the file or had no licensing in
         it (per prior point).  Results summary:
      
         SPDX license identifier                            # files
         ---------------------------------------------------|------
         GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note                       270
         GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                      169
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-2-Clause)    21
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause)    17
         LGPL-2.1+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                      15
         GPL-1.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                       14
         ((GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause)    5
         LGPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                       4
         LGPL-2.1 WITH Linux-syscall-note                        3
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR MIT)              3
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) AND MIT)             1
      
         and that resulted in the third patch in this series.
      
       - when the two scanners agreed on the detected license(s), that became
         the concluded license(s).
      
       - when there was disagreement between the two scanners (one detected a
         license but the other didn't, or they both detected different
         licenses) a manual inspection of the file occurred.
      
       - In most cases a manual inspection of the information in the file
         resulted in a clear resolution of the license that should apply (and
         which scanner probably needed to revisit its heuristics).
      
       - When it was not immediately clear, the license identifier was
         confirmed with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
      
       - If there was any question as to the appropriate license identifier,
         the file was flagged for further research and to be revisited later
         in time.
      
      In total, over 70 hours of logged manual review was done on the
      spreadsheet to determine the SPDX license identifiers to apply to the
      source files by Kate, Philippe, Thomas and, in some cases, confirmation
      by lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
      
      Kate also obtained a third independent scan of the 4.13 code base from
      FOSSology, and compared selected files where the other two scanners
      disagreed against that SPDX file, to see if there was new insights.  The
      Windriver scanner is based on an older version of FOSSology in part, so
      they are related.
      
      Thomas did random spot checks in about 500 files from the spreadsheets
      for the uapi headers and agreed with SPDX license identifier in the
      files he inspected. For the non-uapi files Thomas did random spot checks
      in about 15000 files.
      
      In initial set of patches against 4.14-rc6, 3 files were found to have
      copy/paste license identifier errors, and have been fixed to reflect the
      correct identifier.
      
      Additionally Philippe spent 10 hours this week doing a detailed manual
      inspection and review of the 12,461 patched files from the initial patch
      version early this week with:
       - a full scancode scan run, collecting the matched texts, detected
         license ids and scores
       - reviewing anything where there was a license detected (about 500+
         files) to ensure that the applied SPDX license was correct
       - reviewing anything where there was no detection but the patch license
         was not GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note to ensure that the applied
         SPDX license was correct
      
      This produced a worksheet with 20 files needing minor correction.  This
      worksheet was then exported into 3 different .csv files for the
      different types of files to be modified.
      
      These .csv files were then reviewed by Greg.  Thomas wrote a script to
      parse the csv files and add the proper SPDX tag to the file, in the
      format that the file expected.  This script was further refined by Greg
      based on the output to detect more types of files automatically and to
      distinguish between header and source .c files (which need different
      comment types.)  Finally Greg ran the script using the .csv files to
      generate the patches.
      Reviewed-by: default avatarKate Stewart <kstewart@linuxfoundation.org>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarPhilippe Ombredanne <pombredanne@nexb.com>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarThomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarGreg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
      b2441318
  3. 09 Apr, 2014 1 commit
  4. 19 Feb, 2013 1 commit
  5. 07 Oct, 2010 1 commit
    • David Howells's avatar
      Fix IRQ flag handling naming · df9ee292
      David Howells authored
      Fix the IRQ flag handling naming.  In linux/irqflags.h under one configuration,
      it maps:
      
      	local_irq_enable() -> raw_local_irq_enable()
      	local_irq_disable() -> raw_local_irq_disable()
      	local_irq_save() -> raw_local_irq_save()
      	...
      
      and under the other configuration, it maps:
      
      	raw_local_irq_enable() -> local_irq_enable()
      	raw_local_irq_disable() -> local_irq_disable()
      	raw_local_irq_save() -> local_irq_save()
      	...
      
      This is quite confusing.  There should be one set of names expected of the
      arch, and this should be wrapped to give another set of names that are expected
      by users of this facility.
      
      Change this to have the arch provide:
      
      	flags = arch_local_save_flags()
      	flags = arch_local_irq_save()
      	arch_local_irq_restore(flags)
      	arch_local_irq_disable()
      	arch_local_irq_enable()
      	arch_irqs_disabled_flags(flags)
      	arch_irqs_disabled()
      	arch_safe_halt()
      
      Then linux/irqflags.h wraps these to provide:
      
      	raw_local_save_flags(flags)
      	raw_local_irq_save(flags)
      	raw_local_irq_restore(flags)
      	raw_local_irq_disable()
      	raw_local_irq_enable()
      	raw_irqs_disabled_flags(flags)
      	raw_irqs_disabled()
      	raw_safe_halt()
      
      with type checking on the flags 'arguments', and then wraps those to provide:
      
      	local_save_flags(flags)
      	local_irq_save(flags)
      	local_irq_restore(flags)
      	local_irq_disable()
      	local_irq_enable()
      	irqs_disabled_flags(flags)
      	irqs_disabled()
      	safe_halt()
      
      with tracing included if enabled.
      
      The arch functions can now all be inline functions rather than some of them
      having to be macros.
      
      Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com> [X86, FRV, MN10300]
      Signed-off-by: Chris Metcalf <cmetcalf@tilera.com> [Tile]
      Signed-off-by: Michal Simek <monstr@monstr.eu> [Microblaze]
      Tested-by: Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com> [ARM]
      Acked-by: default avatarThomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
      Acked-by: Haavard Skinnemoen <haavard.skinnemoen@atmel.com> [AVR]
      Acked-by: Tony Luck <tony.luck@intel.com> [IA-64]
      Acked-by: Hirokazu Takata <takata@linux-m32r.org> [M32R]
      Acked-by: Greg Ungerer <gerg@uclinux.org> [M68K/M68KNOMMU]
      Acked-by: Ralf Baechle <ralf@linux-mips.org> [MIPS]
      Acked-by: Kyle McMartin <kyle@mcmartin.ca> [PA-RISC]
      Acked-by: Paul Mackerras <paulus@samba.org> [PowerPC]
      Acked-by: Martin Schwidefsky <schwidefsky@de.ibm.com> [S390]
      Acked-by: Chen Liqin <liqin.chen@sunplusct.com> [Score]
      Acked-by: Matt Fleming <matt@console-pimps.org> [SH]
      Acked-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net> [Sparc]
      Acked-by: Chris Zankel <chris@zankel.net> [Xtensa]
      Reviewed-by: Richard Henderson <rth@twiddle.net> [Alpha]
      Reviewed-by: Yoshinori Sato <ysato@users.sourceforge.jp> [H8300]
      Cc: starvik@axis.com [CRIS]
      Cc: jesper.nilsson@axis.com [CRIS]
      Cc: linux-cris-kernel@axis.com
      df9ee292
  6. 07 Feb, 2008 1 commit
    • Mathieu Desnoyers's avatar
      Add cmpxchg_local to asm-generic for per cpu atomic operations · 068fbad2
      Mathieu Desnoyers authored
      Emulates the cmpxchg_local by disabling interrupts around variable modification.
      This is not reentrant wrt NMIs and MCEs. It is only protected against normal
      interrupts, but this is enough for architectures without such interrupt sources
      or if used in a context where the data is not shared with such handlers.
      
      It can be used as a fallback for architectures lacking a real cmpxchg
      instruction.
      
      For architectures that have a real cmpxchg but does not have NMIs or MCE,
      testing which of the generic vs architecture specific cmpxchg is the fastest
      should be done.
      
      asm-generic/cmpxchg.h defines a cmpxchg that uses cmpxchg_local. It is meant to
      be used as a cmpxchg fallback for architectures that do not support SMP.
      
      * Patch series comments
      
      Using cmpxchg_local shows a performance improvements of the fast path goes from
      a 66% speedup on a Pentium 4 to a 14% speedup on AMD64.
      
      In detail:
      Tested-by: default avatarMathieu Desnoyers <mathieu.desnoyers@polymtl.ca>
      Measurements on a Pentium4, 3GHz, Hyperthread.
      SLUB Performance testing
      ========================
      1. Kmalloc: Repeatedly allocate then free test
      
      * slub HEAD, test 1
      kmalloc(8) = 201 cycles         kfree = 351 cycles
      kmalloc(16) = 198 cycles        kfree = 359 cycles
      kmalloc(32) = 200 cycles        kfree = 381 cycles
      kmalloc(64) = 224 cycles        kfree = 394 cycles
      kmalloc(128) = 285 cycles       kfree = 424 cycles
      kmalloc(256) = 411 cycles       kfree = 546 cycles
      kmalloc(512) = 480 cycles       kfree = 619 cycles
      kmalloc(1024) = 623 cycles      kfree = 750 cycles
      kmalloc(2048) = 686 cycles      kfree = 811 cycles
      kmalloc(4096) = 482 cycles      kfree = 538 cycles
      kmalloc(8192) = 680 cycles      kfree = 734 cycles
      kmalloc(16384) = 713 cycles     kfree = 843 cycles
      
      * Slub HEAD, test 2
      kmalloc(8) = 190 cycles         kfree = 351 cycles
      kmalloc(16) = 195 cycles        kfree = 360 cycles
      kmalloc(32) = 201 cycles        kfree = 370 cycles
      kmalloc(64) = 245 cycles        kfree = 389 cycles
      kmalloc(128) = 283 cycles       kfree = 413 cycles
      kmalloc(256) = 409 cycles       kfree = 547 cycles
      kmalloc(512) = 476 cycles       kfree = 616 cycles
      kmalloc(1024) = 628 cycles      kfree = 753 cycles
      kmalloc(2048) = 684 cycles      kfree = 811 cycles
      kmalloc(4096) = 480 cycles      kfree = 539 cycles
      kmalloc(8192) = 661 cycles      kfree = 746 cycles
      kmalloc(16384) = 741 cycles     kfree = 856 cycles
      
      * cmpxchg_local Slub test
      kmalloc(8) = 83 cycles          kfree = 363 cycles
      kmalloc(16) = 85 cycles         kfree = 372 cycles
      kmalloc(32) = 92 cycles         kfree = 377 cycles
      kmalloc(64) = 115 cycles        kfree = 397 cycles
      kmalloc(128) = 179 cycles       kfree = 438 cycles
      kmalloc(256) = 314 cycles       kfree = 564 cycles
      kmalloc(512) = 398 cycles       kfree = 615 cycles
      kmalloc(1024) = 573 cycles      kfree = 745 cycles
      kmalloc(2048) = 629 cycles      kfree = 816 cycles
      kmalloc(4096) = 473 cycles      kfree = 548 cycles
      kmalloc(8192) = 659 cycles      kfree = 745 cycles
      kmalloc(16384) = 724 cycles     kfree = 843 cycles
      
      2. Kmalloc: alloc/free test
      
      * slub HEAD, test 1
      kmalloc(8)/kfree = 322 cycles
      kmalloc(16)/kfree = 318 cycles
      kmalloc(32)/kfree = 318 cycles
      kmalloc(64)/kfree = 325 cycles
      kmalloc(128)/kfree = 318 cycles
      kmalloc(256)/kfree = 328 cycles
      kmalloc(512)/kfree = 328 cycles
      kmalloc(1024)/kfree = 328 cycles
      kmalloc(2048)/kfree = 328 cycles
      kmalloc(4096)/kfree = 678 cycles
      kmalloc(8192)/kfree = 1013 cycles
      kmalloc(16384)/kfree = 1157 cycles
      
      * Slub HEAD, test 2
      kmalloc(8)/kfree = 323 cycles
      kmalloc(16)/kfree = 318 cycles
      kmalloc(32)/kfree = 318 cycles
      kmalloc(64)/kfree = 318 cycles
      kmalloc(128)/kfree = 318 cycles
      kmalloc(256)/kfree = 328 cycles
      kmalloc(512)/kfree = 328 cycles
      kmalloc(1024)/kfree = 328 cycles
      kmalloc(2048)/kfree = 328 cycles
      kmalloc(4096)/kfree = 648 cycles
      kmalloc(8192)/kfree = 1009 cycles
      kmalloc(16384)/kfree = 1105 cycles
      
      * cmpxchg_local Slub test
      kmalloc(8)/kfree = 112 cycles
      kmalloc(16)/kfree = 103 cycles
      kmalloc(32)/kfree = 103 cycles
      kmalloc(64)/kfree = 103 cycles
      kmalloc(128)/kfree = 112 cycles
      kmalloc(256)/kfree = 111 cycles
      kmalloc(512)/kfree = 111 cycles
      kmalloc(1024)/kfree = 111 cycles
      kmalloc(2048)/kfree = 121 cycles
      kmalloc(4096)/kfree = 650 cycles
      kmalloc(8192)/kfree = 1042 cycles
      kmalloc(16384)/kfree = 1149 cycles
      Tested-by: default avatarMathieu Desnoyers <mathieu.desnoyers@polymtl.ca>
      Measurements on a AMD64 2.0 GHz dual-core
      
      In this test, we seem to remove 10 cycles from the kmalloc fast path.
      On small allocations, it gives a 14% performance increase. kfree fast
      path also seems to have a 10 cycles improvement.
      
      1. Kmalloc: Repeatedly allocate then free test
      
      * cmpxchg_local slub
      kmalloc(8) = 63 cycles      kfree = 126 cycles
      kmalloc(16) = 66 cycles     kfree = 129 cycles
      kmalloc(32) = 76 cycles     kfree = 138 cycles
      kmalloc(64) = 100 cycles    kfree = 288 cycles
      kmalloc(128) = 128 cycles   kfree = 309 cycles
      kmalloc(256) = 170 cycles   kfree = 315 cycles
      kmalloc(512) = 221 cycles   kfree = 357 cycles
      kmalloc(1024) = 324 cycles  kfree = 393 cycles
      kmalloc(2048) = 354 cycles  kfree = 440 cycles
      kmalloc(4096) = 394 cycles  kfree = 330 cycles
      kmalloc(8192) = 523 cycles  kfree = 481 cycles
      kmalloc(16384) = 643 cycles kfree = 649 cycles
      
      * Base
      kmalloc(8) = 74 cycles      kfree = 113 cycles
      kmalloc(16) = 76 cycles     kfree = 116 cycles
      kmalloc(32) = 85 cycles     kfree = 133 cycles
      kmalloc(64) = 111 cycles    kfree = 279 cycles
      kmalloc(128) = 138 cycles   kfree = 294 cycles
      kmalloc(256) = 181 cycles   kfree = 304 cycles
      kmalloc(512) = 237 cycles   kfree = 327 cycles
      kmalloc(1024) = 340 cycles  kfree = 379 cycles
      kmalloc(2048) = 378 cycles  kfree = 433 cycles
      kmalloc(4096) = 399 cycles  kfree = 329 cycles
      kmalloc(8192) = 528 cycles  kfree = 624 cycles
      kmalloc(16384) = 651 cycles kfree = 737 cycles
      
      2. Kmalloc: alloc/free test
      
      * cmpxchg_local slub
      kmalloc(8)/kfree = 96 cycles
      kmalloc(16)/kfree = 97 cycles
      kmalloc(32)/kfree = 97 cycles
      kmalloc(64)/kfree = 97 cycles
      kmalloc(128)/kfree = 97 cycles
      kmalloc(256)/kfree = 105 cycles
      kmalloc(512)/kfree = 108 cycles
      kmalloc(1024)/kfree = 105 cycles
      kmalloc(2048)/kfree = 107 cycles
      kmalloc(4096)/kfree = 390 cycles
      kmalloc(8192)/kfree = 626 cycles
      kmalloc(16384)/kfree = 662 cycles
      
      * Base
      kmalloc(8)/kfree = 116 cycles
      kmalloc(16)/kfree = 116 cycles
      kmalloc(32)/kfree = 116 cycles
      kmalloc(64)/kfree = 116 cycles
      kmalloc(128)/kfree = 116 cycles
      kmalloc(256)/kfree = 126 cycles
      kmalloc(512)/kfree = 126 cycles
      kmalloc(1024)/kfree = 126 cycles
      kmalloc(2048)/kfree = 126 cycles
      kmalloc(4096)/kfree = 384 cycles
      kmalloc(8192)/kfree = 749 cycles
      kmalloc(16384)/kfree = 786 cycles
      Tested-by: default avatarChristoph Lameter <clameter@sgi.com>
      I can confirm Mathieus' measurement now:
      
      Athlon64:
      
      regular NUMA/discontig
      
      1. Kmalloc: Repeatedly allocate then free test
      10000 times kmalloc(8) -> 79 cycles kfree -> 92 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(16) -> 79 cycles kfree -> 93 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(32) -> 88 cycles kfree -> 95 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(64) -> 124 cycles kfree -> 132 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(128) -> 157 cycles kfree -> 247 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(256) -> 200 cycles kfree -> 257 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(512) -> 250 cycles kfree -> 277 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(1024) -> 337 cycles kfree -> 314 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(2048) -> 365 cycles kfree -> 330 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(4096) -> 352 cycles kfree -> 240 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(8192) -> 456 cycles kfree -> 340 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(16384) -> 646 cycles kfree -> 471 cycles
      2. Kmalloc: alloc/free test
      10000 times kmalloc(8)/kfree -> 124 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(16)/kfree -> 124 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(32)/kfree -> 124 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(64)/kfree -> 124 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(128)/kfree -> 124 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(256)/kfree -> 132 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(512)/kfree -> 132 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(1024)/kfree -> 132 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(2048)/kfree -> 132 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(4096)/kfree -> 319 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(8192)/kfree -> 486 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(16384)/kfree -> 539 cycles
      
      cmpxchg_local NUMA/discontig
      
      1. Kmalloc: Repeatedly allocate then free test
      10000 times kmalloc(8) -> 55 cycles kfree -> 90 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(16) -> 55 cycles kfree -> 92 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(32) -> 70 cycles kfree -> 91 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(64) -> 100 cycles kfree -> 141 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(128) -> 128 cycles kfree -> 233 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(256) -> 172 cycles kfree -> 251 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(512) -> 225 cycles kfree -> 275 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(1024) -> 325 cycles kfree -> 311 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(2048) -> 346 cycles kfree -> 330 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(4096) -> 351 cycles kfree -> 238 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(8192) -> 450 cycles kfree -> 342 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(16384) -> 630 cycles kfree -> 546 cycles
      2. Kmalloc: alloc/free test
      10000 times kmalloc(8)/kfree -> 81 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(16)/kfree -> 81 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(32)/kfree -> 81 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(64)/kfree -> 81 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(128)/kfree -> 81 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(256)/kfree -> 91 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(512)/kfree -> 90 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(1024)/kfree -> 91 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(2048)/kfree -> 90 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(4096)/kfree -> 318 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(8192)/kfree -> 483 cycles
      10000 times kmalloc(16384)/kfree -> 536 cycles
      
      Changelog:
      - Ran though checkpatch.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarMathieu Desnoyers <mathieu.desnoyers@polymtl.ca>
      Cc: <linux-arch@vger.kernel.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      068fbad2