1. 09 Jan, 2017 2 commits
    • Jason A. Donenfeld's avatar
      siphash: implement HalfSipHash1-3 for hash tables · 1ae2324f
      Jason A. Donenfeld authored
      HalfSipHash, or hsiphash, is a shortened version of SipHash, which
      generates 32-bit outputs using a weaker 64-bit key. It has *much* lower
      security margins, and shouldn't be used for anything too sensitive, but
      it could be used as a hashtable key function replacement, if the output
      is never exposed, and if the security requirement is not too high.
      The goal is to make this something that performance-critical jhash users
      would be willing to use.
      On 64-bit machines, HalfSipHash1-3 is slower than SipHash1-3, so we alias
      SipHash1-3 to HalfSipHash1-3 on those systems.
      64-bit x86_64:
      [    0.509409] test_siphash:     SipHash2-4 cycles: 4049181
      [    0.510650] test_siphash:     SipHash1-3 cycles: 2512884
      [    0.512205] test_siphash: HalfSipHash1-3 cycles: 3429920
      [    0.512904] test_siphash:    JenkinsHash cycles:  978267
      So, we map hsiphash() -> SipHash1-3
      32-bit x86:
      [    0.509868] test_siphash:     SipHash2-4 cycles: 14812892
      [    0.513601] test_siphash:     SipHash1-3 cycles:  9510710
      [    0.515263] test_siphash: HalfSipHash1-3 cycles:  3856157
      [    0.515952] test_siphash:    JenkinsHash cycles:  1148567
      So, we map hsiphash() -> HalfSipHash1-3
      hsiphash() is roughly 3 times slower than jhash(), but comes with a
      considerable security improvement.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJason A. Donenfeld <Jason@zx2c4.com>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarJean-Philippe Aumasson <jeanphilippe.aumasson@gmail.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
    • Jason A. Donenfeld's avatar
      siphash: add cryptographically secure PRF · 2c956a60
      Jason A. Donenfeld authored
      SipHash is a 64-bit keyed hash function that is actually a
      cryptographically secure PRF, like HMAC. Except SipHash is super fast,
      and is meant to be used as a hashtable keyed lookup function, or as a
      general PRF for short input use cases, such as sequence numbers or RNG
      For the first usage:
      There are a variety of attacks known as "hashtable poisoning" in which an
      attacker forms some data such that the hash of that data will be the
      same, and then preceeds to fill up all entries of a hashbucket. This is
      a realistic and well-known denial-of-service vector. Currently
      hashtables use jhash, which is fast but not secure, and some kind of
      rotating key scheme (or none at all, which isn't good). SipHash is meant
      as a replacement for jhash in these cases.
      There are a modicum of places in the kernel that are vulnerable to
      hashtable poisoning attacks, either via userspace vectors or network
      vectors, and there's not a reliable mechanism inside the kernel at the
      moment to fix it. The first step toward fixing these issues is actually
      getting a secure primitive into the kernel for developers to use. Then
      we can, bit by bit, port things over to it as deemed appropriate.
      While SipHash is extremely fast for a cryptographically secure function,
      it is likely a bit slower than the insecure jhash, and so replacements
      will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis based on whether or not the
      difference in speed is negligible and whether or not the current jhash usage
      poses a real security risk.
      For the second usage:
      A few places in the kernel are using MD5 or SHA1 for creating secure
      sequence numbers, syn cookies, port numbers, or fast random numbers.
      SipHash is a faster and more fitting, and more secure replacement for MD5
      in those situations. Replacing MD5 and SHA1 with SipHash for these uses is
      obvious and straight-forward, and so is submitted along with this patch
      series. There shouldn't be much of a debate over its efficacy.
      Dozens of languages are already using this internally for their hash
      tables and PRFs. Some of the BSDs already use this in their kernels.
      SipHash is a widely known high-speed solution to a widely known set of
      problems, and it's time we catch-up.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJason A. Donenfeld <Jason@zx2c4.com>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarJean-Philippe Aumasson <jeanphilippe.aumasson@gmail.com>
      Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      Cc: Eric Biggers <ebiggers3@gmail.com>
      Cc: David Laight <David.Laight@aculab.com>
      Cc: Eric Dumazet <eric.dumazet@gmail.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>