char_dev.c 16.7 KB
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// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
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/*
 *  linux/fs/char_dev.c
 *
 *  Copyright (C) 1991, 1992  Linus Torvalds
 */

#include <linux/init.h>
#include <linux/fs.h>
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#include <linux/kdev_t.h>
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#include <linux/slab.h>
#include <linux/string.h>

#include <linux/major.h>
#include <linux/errno.h>
#include <linux/module.h>
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#include <linux/seq_file.h>
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#include <linux/kobject.h>
#include <linux/kobj_map.h>
#include <linux/cdev.h>
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#include <linux/mutex.h>
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#include <linux/backing-dev.h>
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#include <linux/tty.h>
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#include "internal.h"
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static struct kobj_map *cdev_map;

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static DEFINE_MUTEX(chrdevs_lock);
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#define CHRDEV_MAJOR_HASH_SIZE 255

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static struct char_device_struct {
	struct char_device_struct *next;
	unsigned int major;
	unsigned int baseminor;
	int minorct;
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	char name[64];
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	struct cdev *cdev;		/* will die */
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} *chrdevs[CHRDEV_MAJOR_HASH_SIZE];
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/* index in the above */
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static inline int major_to_index(unsigned major)
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{
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	return major % CHRDEV_MAJOR_HASH_SIZE;
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}

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#ifdef CONFIG_PROC_FS
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void chrdev_show(struct seq_file *f, off_t offset)
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{
	struct char_device_struct *cd;

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	mutex_lock(&chrdevs_lock);
	for (cd = chrdevs[major_to_index(offset)]; cd; cd = cd->next) {
		if (cd->major == offset)
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			seq_printf(f, "%3d %s\n", cd->major, cd->name);
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	}
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	mutex_unlock(&chrdevs_lock);
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}

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#endif /* CONFIG_PROC_FS */
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static int find_dynamic_major(void)
{
	int i;
	struct char_device_struct *cd;

	for (i = ARRAY_SIZE(chrdevs)-1; i > CHRDEV_MAJOR_DYN_END; i--) {
		if (chrdevs[i] == NULL)
			return i;
	}

	for (i = CHRDEV_MAJOR_DYN_EXT_START;
	     i > CHRDEV_MAJOR_DYN_EXT_END; i--) {
		for (cd = chrdevs[major_to_index(i)]; cd; cd = cd->next)
			if (cd->major == i)
				break;

		if (cd == NULL || cd->major != i)
			return i;
	}

	return -EBUSY;
}

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/*
 * Register a single major with a specified minor range.
 *
 * If major == 0 this functions will dynamically allocate a major and return
 * its number.
 *
 * If major > 0 this function will attempt to reserve the passed range of
 * minors and will return zero on success.
 *
 * Returns a -ve errno on failure.
 */
static struct char_device_struct *
__register_chrdev_region(unsigned int major, unsigned int baseminor,
			   int minorct, const char *name)
{
	struct char_device_struct *cd, **cp;
	int ret = 0;
	int i;

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	cd = kzalloc(sizeof(struct char_device_struct), GFP_KERNEL);
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	if (cd == NULL)
		return ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);

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	mutex_lock(&chrdevs_lock);
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	if (major == 0) {
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		ret = find_dynamic_major();
		if (ret < 0) {
			pr_err("CHRDEV \"%s\" dynamic allocation region is full\n",
			       name);
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			goto out;
		}
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		major = ret;
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	}

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	if (major >= CHRDEV_MAJOR_MAX) {
		pr_err("CHRDEV \"%s\" major requested (%d) is greater than the maximum (%d)\n",
		       name, major, CHRDEV_MAJOR_MAX);
		ret = -EINVAL;
		goto out;
	}

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	cd->major = major;
	cd->baseminor = baseminor;
	cd->minorct = minorct;
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	strlcpy(cd->name, name, sizeof(cd->name));
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	i = major_to_index(major);

	for (cp = &chrdevs[i]; *cp; cp = &(*cp)->next)
		if ((*cp)->major > major ||
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		    ((*cp)->major == major &&
		     (((*cp)->baseminor >= baseminor) ||
		      ((*cp)->baseminor + (*cp)->minorct > baseminor))))
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			break;
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	/* Check for overlapping minor ranges.  */
	if (*cp && (*cp)->major == major) {
		int old_min = (*cp)->baseminor;
		int old_max = (*cp)->baseminor + (*cp)->minorct - 1;
		int new_min = baseminor;
		int new_max = baseminor + minorct - 1;

		/* New driver overlaps from the left.  */
		if (new_max >= old_min && new_max <= old_max) {
			ret = -EBUSY;
			goto out;
		}

		/* New driver overlaps from the right.  */
		if (new_min <= old_max && new_min >= old_min) {
			ret = -EBUSY;
			goto out;
		}
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	}
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	cd->next = *cp;
	*cp = cd;
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	mutex_unlock(&chrdevs_lock);
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	return cd;
out:
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	mutex_unlock(&chrdevs_lock);
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	kfree(cd);
	return ERR_PTR(ret);
}

static struct char_device_struct *
__unregister_chrdev_region(unsigned major, unsigned baseminor, int minorct)
{
	struct char_device_struct *cd = NULL, **cp;
	int i = major_to_index(major);

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	mutex_lock(&chrdevs_lock);
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	for (cp = &chrdevs[i]; *cp; cp = &(*cp)->next)
		if ((*cp)->major == major &&
		    (*cp)->baseminor == baseminor &&
		    (*cp)->minorct == minorct)
			break;
	if (*cp) {
		cd = *cp;
		*cp = cd->next;
	}
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	mutex_unlock(&chrdevs_lock);
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	return cd;
}

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/**
 * register_chrdev_region() - register a range of device numbers
 * @from: the first in the desired range of device numbers; must include
 *        the major number.
 * @count: the number of consecutive device numbers required
 * @name: the name of the device or driver.
 *
 * Return value is zero on success, a negative error code on failure.
 */
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int register_chrdev_region(dev_t from, unsigned count, const char *name)
{
	struct char_device_struct *cd;
	dev_t to = from + count;
	dev_t n, next;

	for (n = from; n < to; n = next) {
		next = MKDEV(MAJOR(n)+1, 0);
		if (next > to)
			next = to;
		cd = __register_chrdev_region(MAJOR(n), MINOR(n),
			       next - n, name);
		if (IS_ERR(cd))
			goto fail;
	}
	return 0;
fail:
	to = n;
	for (n = from; n < to; n = next) {
		next = MKDEV(MAJOR(n)+1, 0);
		kfree(__unregister_chrdev_region(MAJOR(n), MINOR(n), next - n));
	}
	return PTR_ERR(cd);
}

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/**
 * alloc_chrdev_region() - register a range of char device numbers
 * @dev: output parameter for first assigned number
 * @baseminor: first of the requested range of minor numbers
 * @count: the number of minor numbers required
 * @name: the name of the associated device or driver
 *
 * Allocates a range of char device numbers.  The major number will be
 * chosen dynamically, and returned (along with the first minor number)
 * in @dev.  Returns zero or a negative error code.
 */
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int alloc_chrdev_region(dev_t *dev, unsigned baseminor, unsigned count,
			const char *name)
{
	struct char_device_struct *cd;
	cd = __register_chrdev_region(0, baseminor, count, name);
	if (IS_ERR(cd))
		return PTR_ERR(cd);
	*dev = MKDEV(cd->major, cd->baseminor);
	return 0;
}

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/**
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 * __register_chrdev() - create and register a cdev occupying a range of minors
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 * @major: major device number or 0 for dynamic allocation
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 * @baseminor: first of the requested range of minor numbers
 * @count: the number of minor numbers required
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 * @name: name of this range of devices
 * @fops: file operations associated with this devices
 *
 * If @major == 0 this functions will dynamically allocate a major and return
 * its number.
 *
 * If @major > 0 this function will attempt to reserve a device with the given
 * major number and will return zero on success.
 *
 * Returns a -ve errno on failure.
 *
 * The name of this device has nothing to do with the name of the device in
 * /dev. It only helps to keep track of the different owners of devices. If
 * your module name has only one type of devices it's ok to use e.g. the name
 * of the module here.
 */
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int __register_chrdev(unsigned int major, unsigned int baseminor,
		      unsigned int count, const char *name,
		      const struct file_operations *fops)
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{
	struct char_device_struct *cd;
	struct cdev *cdev;
	int err = -ENOMEM;

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	cd = __register_chrdev_region(major, baseminor, count, name);
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	if (IS_ERR(cd))
		return PTR_ERR(cd);
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	cdev = cdev_alloc();
	if (!cdev)
		goto out2;

	cdev->owner = fops->owner;
	cdev->ops = fops;
	kobject_set_name(&cdev->kobj, "%s", name);
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	err = cdev_add(cdev, MKDEV(cd->major, baseminor), count);
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	if (err)
		goto out;

	cd->cdev = cdev;

	return major ? 0 : cd->major;
out:
	kobject_put(&cdev->kobj);
out2:
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	kfree(__unregister_chrdev_region(cd->major, baseminor, count));
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	return err;
}

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/**
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 * unregister_chrdev_region() - unregister a range of device numbers
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 * @from: the first in the range of numbers to unregister
 * @count: the number of device numbers to unregister
 *
 * This function will unregister a range of @count device numbers,
 * starting with @from.  The caller should normally be the one who
 * allocated those numbers in the first place...
 */
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void unregister_chrdev_region(dev_t from, unsigned count)
{
	dev_t to = from + count;
	dev_t n, next;

	for (n = from; n < to; n = next) {
		next = MKDEV(MAJOR(n)+1, 0);
		if (next > to)
			next = to;
		kfree(__unregister_chrdev_region(MAJOR(n), MINOR(n), next - n));
	}
}

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/**
 * __unregister_chrdev - unregister and destroy a cdev
 * @major: major device number
 * @baseminor: first of the range of minor numbers
 * @count: the number of minor numbers this cdev is occupying
 * @name: name of this range of devices
 *
 * Unregister and destroy the cdev occupying the region described by
 * @major, @baseminor and @count.  This function undoes what
 * __register_chrdev() did.
 */
void __unregister_chrdev(unsigned int major, unsigned int baseminor,
			 unsigned int count, const char *name)
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{
	struct char_device_struct *cd;
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	cd = __unregister_chrdev_region(major, baseminor, count);
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	if (cd && cd->cdev)
		cdev_del(cd->cdev);
	kfree(cd);
}

static DEFINE_SPINLOCK(cdev_lock);

static struct kobject *cdev_get(struct cdev *p)
{
	struct module *owner = p->owner;
	struct kobject *kobj;

	if (owner && !try_module_get(owner))
		return NULL;
	kobj = kobject_get(&p->kobj);
	if (!kobj)
		module_put(owner);
	return kobj;
}

void cdev_put(struct cdev *p)
{
	if (p) {
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		struct module *owner = p->owner;
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		kobject_put(&p->kobj);
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		module_put(owner);
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	}
}

/*
 * Called every time a character special file is opened
 */
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static int chrdev_open(struct inode *inode, struct file *filp)
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{
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	const struct file_operations *fops;
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	struct cdev *p;
	struct cdev *new = NULL;
	int ret = 0;

	spin_lock(&cdev_lock);
	p = inode->i_cdev;
	if (!p) {
		struct kobject *kobj;
		int idx;
		spin_unlock(&cdev_lock);
		kobj = kobj_lookup(cdev_map, inode->i_rdev, &idx);
		if (!kobj)
			return -ENXIO;
		new = container_of(kobj, struct cdev, kobj);
		spin_lock(&cdev_lock);
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		/* Check i_cdev again in case somebody beat us to it while
		   we dropped the lock. */
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		p = inode->i_cdev;
		if (!p) {
			inode->i_cdev = p = new;
			list_add(&inode->i_devices, &p->list);
			new = NULL;
		} else if (!cdev_get(p))
			ret = -ENXIO;
	} else if (!cdev_get(p))
		ret = -ENXIO;
	spin_unlock(&cdev_lock);
	cdev_put(new);
	if (ret)
		return ret;
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	ret = -ENXIO;
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	fops = fops_get(p->ops);
	if (!fops)
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		goto out_cdev_put;

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	replace_fops(filp, fops);
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	if (filp->f_op->open) {
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		ret = filp->f_op->open(inode, filp);
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		if (ret)
			goto out_cdev_put;
	}

	return 0;

 out_cdev_put:
	cdev_put(p);
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	return ret;
}

void cd_forget(struct inode *inode)
{
	spin_lock(&cdev_lock);
	list_del_init(&inode->i_devices);
	inode->i_cdev = NULL;
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	inode->i_mapping = &inode->i_data;
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	spin_unlock(&cdev_lock);
}

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static void cdev_purge(struct cdev *cdev)
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{
	spin_lock(&cdev_lock);
	while (!list_empty(&cdev->list)) {
		struct inode *inode;
		inode = container_of(cdev->list.next, struct inode, i_devices);
		list_del_init(&inode->i_devices);
		inode->i_cdev = NULL;
	}
	spin_unlock(&cdev_lock);
}

/*
 * Dummy default file-operations: the only thing this does
 * is contain the open that then fills in the correct operations
 * depending on the special file...
 */
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const struct file_operations def_chr_fops = {
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	.open = chrdev_open,
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	.llseek = noop_llseek,
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};

static struct kobject *exact_match(dev_t dev, int *part, void *data)
{
	struct cdev *p = data;
	return &p->kobj;
}

static int exact_lock(dev_t dev, void *data)
{
	struct cdev *p = data;
	return cdev_get(p) ? 0 : -1;
}

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/**
 * cdev_add() - add a char device to the system
 * @p: the cdev structure for the device
 * @dev: the first device number for which this device is responsible
 * @count: the number of consecutive minor numbers corresponding to this
 *         device
 *
 * cdev_add() adds the device represented by @p to the system, making it
 * live immediately.  A negative error code is returned on failure.
 */
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int cdev_add(struct cdev *p, dev_t dev, unsigned count)
{
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	int error;

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	p->dev = dev;
	p->count = count;
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	error = kobj_map(cdev_map, dev, count, NULL,
			 exact_match, exact_lock, p);
	if (error)
		return error;

	kobject_get(p->kobj.parent);

	return 0;
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}

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/**
 * cdev_set_parent() - set the parent kobject for a char device
 * @p: the cdev structure
 * @kobj: the kobject to take a reference to
 *
 * cdev_set_parent() sets a parent kobject which will be referenced
 * appropriately so the parent is not freed before the cdev. This
 * should be called before cdev_add.
 */
void cdev_set_parent(struct cdev *p, struct kobject *kobj)
{
	WARN_ON(!kobj->state_initialized);
	p->kobj.parent = kobj;
}

/**
 * cdev_device_add() - add a char device and it's corresponding
 *	struct device, linkink
 * @dev: the device structure
 * @cdev: the cdev structure
 *
 * cdev_device_add() adds the char device represented by @cdev to the system,
 * just as cdev_add does. It then adds @dev to the system using device_add
 * The dev_t for the char device will be taken from the struct device which
 * needs to be initialized first. This helper function correctly takes a
 * reference to the parent device so the parent will not get released until
 * all references to the cdev are released.
 *
 * This helper uses dev->devt for the device number. If it is not set
 * it will not add the cdev and it will be equivalent to device_add.
 *
 * This function should be used whenever the struct cdev and the
 * struct device are members of the same structure whose lifetime is
 * managed by the struct device.
 *
 * NOTE: Callers must assume that userspace was able to open the cdev and
 * can call cdev fops callbacks at any time, even if this function fails.
 */
int cdev_device_add(struct cdev *cdev, struct device *dev)
{
	int rc = 0;

	if (dev->devt) {
		cdev_set_parent(cdev, &dev->kobj);

		rc = cdev_add(cdev, dev->devt, 1);
		if (rc)
			return rc;
	}

	rc = device_add(dev);
	if (rc)
		cdev_del(cdev);

	return rc;
}

/**
 * cdev_device_del() - inverse of cdev_device_add
 * @dev: the device structure
 * @cdev: the cdev structure
 *
 * cdev_device_del() is a helper function to call cdev_del and device_del.
 * It should be used whenever cdev_device_add is used.
 *
 * If dev->devt is not set it will not remove the cdev and will be equivalent
 * to device_del.
 *
 * NOTE: This guarantees that associated sysfs callbacks are not running
 * or runnable, however any cdevs already open will remain and their fops
 * will still be callable even after this function returns.
 */
void cdev_device_del(struct cdev *cdev, struct device *dev)
{
	device_del(dev);
	if (dev->devt)
		cdev_del(cdev);
}

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static void cdev_unmap(dev_t dev, unsigned count)
{
	kobj_unmap(cdev_map, dev, count);
}

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/**
 * cdev_del() - remove a cdev from the system
 * @p: the cdev structure to be removed
 *
 * cdev_del() removes @p from the system, possibly freeing the structure
 * itself.
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 *
 * NOTE: This guarantees that cdev device will no longer be able to be
 * opened, however any cdevs already open will remain and their fops will
 * still be callable even after cdev_del returns.
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 */
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void cdev_del(struct cdev *p)
{
	cdev_unmap(p->dev, p->count);
	kobject_put(&p->kobj);
}


static void cdev_default_release(struct kobject *kobj)
{
	struct cdev *p = container_of(kobj, struct cdev, kobj);
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	struct kobject *parent = kobj->parent;

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	cdev_purge(p);
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	kobject_put(parent);
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}

static void cdev_dynamic_release(struct kobject *kobj)
{
	struct cdev *p = container_of(kobj, struct cdev, kobj);
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	struct kobject *parent = kobj->parent;

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	cdev_purge(p);
	kfree(p);
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	kobject_put(parent);
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}

static struct kobj_type ktype_cdev_default = {
	.release	= cdev_default_release,
};

static struct kobj_type ktype_cdev_dynamic = {
	.release	= cdev_dynamic_release,
};

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/**
 * cdev_alloc() - allocate a cdev structure
 *
 * Allocates and returns a cdev structure, or NULL on failure.
 */
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struct cdev *cdev_alloc(void)
{
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	struct cdev *p = kzalloc(sizeof(struct cdev), GFP_KERNEL);
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	if (p) {
		INIT_LIST_HEAD(&p->list);
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		kobject_init(&p->kobj, &ktype_cdev_dynamic);
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	}
	return p;
}

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/**
 * cdev_init() - initialize a cdev structure
 * @cdev: the structure to initialize
 * @fops: the file_operations for this device
 *
 * Initializes @cdev, remembering @fops, making it ready to add to the
 * system with cdev_add().
 */
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void cdev_init(struct cdev *cdev, const struct file_operations *fops)
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{
	memset(cdev, 0, sizeof *cdev);
	INIT_LIST_HEAD(&cdev->list);
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	kobject_init(&cdev->kobj, &ktype_cdev_default);
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	cdev->ops = fops;
}

static struct kobject *base_probe(dev_t dev, int *part, void *data)
{
	if (request_module("char-major-%d-%d", MAJOR(dev), MINOR(dev)) > 0)
		/* Make old-style 2.4 aliases work */
		request_module("char-major-%d", MAJOR(dev));
	return NULL;
}

void __init chrdev_init(void)
{
	cdev_map = kobj_map_init(base_probe, &chrdevs_lock);
}


/* Let modules do char dev stuff */
EXPORT_SYMBOL(register_chrdev_region);
EXPORT_SYMBOL(unregister_chrdev_region);
EXPORT_SYMBOL(alloc_chrdev_region);
EXPORT_SYMBOL(cdev_init);
EXPORT_SYMBOL(cdev_alloc);
EXPORT_SYMBOL(cdev_del);
EXPORT_SYMBOL(cdev_add);
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EXPORT_SYMBOL(cdev_set_parent);
EXPORT_SYMBOL(cdev_device_add);
EXPORT_SYMBOL(cdev_device_del);
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EXPORT_SYMBOL(__register_chrdev);
EXPORT_SYMBOL(__unregister_chrdev);