1. 18 Nov, 2017 1 commit
  2. 02 Nov, 2017 1 commit
    • Greg Kroah-Hartman's avatar
      License cleanup: add SPDX GPL-2.0 license identifier to files with no license · b2441318
      Greg Kroah-Hartman authored
      Many source files in the tree are missing licensing information, which
      makes it harder for compliance tools to determine the correct license.
      By default all files without license information are under the default
      license of the kernel, which is GPL version 2.
      Update the files which contain no license information with the 'GPL-2.0'
      SPDX license identifier.  The SPDX identifier is a legally binding
      shorthand, which can be used instead of the full boiler plate text.
      This patch is based on work done by Thomas Gleixner and Kate Stewart and
      Philippe Ombredanne.
      How this work was done:
      Patches were generated and checked against linux-4.14-rc6 for a subset of
      the use cases:
       - file had no licensing information it it.
       - file was a */uapi/* one with no licensing information in it,
       - file was a */uapi/* one with existing licensing information,
      Further patches will be generated in subsequent months to fix up cases
      where non-standard license headers were used, and references to license
      had to be inferred by heuristics based on keywords.
      The analysis to determine which SPDX License Identifier to be applied to
      a file was done in a spreadsheet of side by side results from of the
      output of two independent scanners (ScanCode & Windriver) producing SPDX
      tag:value files created by Philippe Ombredanne.  Philippe prepared the
      base worksheet, and did an initial spot review of a few 1000 files.
      The 4.13 kernel was the starting point of the analysis with 60,537 files
      assessed.  Kate Stewart did a file by file comparison of the scanner
      results in the spreadsheet to determine which SPDX license identifier(s)
      to be applied to the file. She confirmed any determination that was not
      immediately clear with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
      Criteria used to select files for SPDX license identifier tagging was:
       - Files considered eligible had to be source code files.
       - Make and config files were included as candidates if they contained >5
         lines of source
       - File already had some variant of a license header in it (even if <5
      All documentation files were explicitly excluded.
      The following heuristics were used to determine which SPDX license
      identifiers to apply.
       - when both scanners couldn't find any license traces, file was
         considered to have no license information in it, and the top level
         COPYING file license applied.
         For non */uapi/* files that summary was:
         SPDX license identifier                            # files
         GPL-2.0                                              11139
         and resulted in the first patch in this series.
         If that file was a */uapi/* path one, it was "GPL-2.0 WITH
         Linux-syscall-note" otherwise it was "GPL-2.0".  Results of that was:
         SPDX license identifier                            # files
         GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note                        930
         and resulted in the second patch in this series.
       - if a file had some form of licensing information in it, and was one
         of the */uapi/* ones, it was denoted with the Linux-syscall-note if
         any GPL family license was found in the file or had no licensing in
         it (per prior point).  Results summary:
         SPDX license identifier                            # files
         GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note                       270
         GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                      169
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-2-Clause)    21
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause)    17
         LGPL-2.1+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                      15
         GPL-1.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                       14
         ((GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause)    5
         LGPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                       4
         LGPL-2.1 WITH Linux-syscall-note                        3
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR MIT)              3
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) AND MIT)             1
         and that resulted in the third patch in this series.
       - when the two scanners agreed on the detected license(s), that became
         the concluded license(s).
       - when there was disagreement between the two scanners (one detected a
         license but the other didn't, or they both detected different
         licenses) a manual inspection of the file occurred.
       - In most cases a manual inspection of the information in the file
         resulted in a clear resolution of the license that should apply (and
         which scanner probably needed to revisit its heuristics).
       - When it was not immediately clear, the license identifier was
         confirmed with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
       - If there was any question as to the appropriate license identifier,
         the file was flagged for further research and to be revisited later
         in time.
      In total, over 70 hours of logged manual review was done on the
      spreadsheet to determine the SPDX license identifiers to apply to the
      source files by Kate, Philippe, Thomas and, in some cases, confirmation
      by lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
      Kate also obtained a third independent scan of the 4.13 code base from
      FOSSology, and compared selected files where the other two scanners
      disagreed against that SPDX file, to see if there was new insights.  The
      Windriver scanner is based on an older version of FOSSology in part, so
      they are related.
      Thomas did random spot checks in about 500 files from the spreadsheets
      for the uapi headers and agreed with SPDX license identifier in the
      files he inspected. For the non-uapi files Thomas did random spot checks
      in about 15000 files.
      In initial set of patches against 4.14-rc6, 3 files were found to have
      copy/paste license identifier errors, and have been fixed to reflect the
      correct identifier.
      Additionally Philippe spent 10 hours this week doing a detailed manual
      inspection and review of the 12,461 patched files from the initial patch
      version early this week with:
       - a full scancode scan run, collecting the matched texts, detected
         license ids and scores
       - reviewing anything where there was a license detected (about 500+
         files) to ensure that the applied SPDX license was correct
       - reviewing anything where there was no detection but the patch license
         was not GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note to ensure that the applied
         SPDX license was correct
      This produced a worksheet with 20 files needing minor correction.  This
      worksheet was then exported into 3 different .csv files for the
      different types of files to be modified.
      These .csv files were then reviewed by Greg.  Thomas wrote a script to
      parse the csv files and add the proper SPDX tag to the file, in the
      format that the file expected.  This script was further refined by Greg
      based on the output to detect more types of files automatically and to
      distinguish between header and source .c files (which need different
      comment types.)  Finally Greg ran the script using the .csv files to
      generate the patches.
      Reviewed-by: default avatarKate Stewart <kstewart@linuxfoundation.org>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarPhilippe Ombredanne <pombredanne@nexb.com>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarThomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarGreg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
  3. 11 Oct, 2017 1 commit
  4. 09 Sep, 2017 4 commits
  5. 04 Sep, 2017 2 commits
  6. 17 Aug, 2017 1 commit
    • Paul E. McKenney's avatar
      ipc: Replace spin_unlock_wait() with lock/unlock pair · e0892e08
      Paul E. McKenney authored
      There is no agreed-upon definition of spin_unlock_wait()'s semantics,
      and it appears that all callers could do just as well with a lock/unlock
      pair.  This commit therefore replaces the spin_unlock_wait() call in
      exit_sem() with spin_lock() followed immediately by spin_unlock().
      This should be safe from a performance perspective because exit_sem()
      is rarely invoked in production.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarPaul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
      Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
      Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
      Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
      Cc: Alan Stern <stern@rowland.harvard.edu>
      Cc: Andrea Parri <parri.andrea@gmail.com>
      Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
      Acked-by: default avatarManfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
  7. 03 Aug, 2017 1 commit
  8. 16 Jul, 2017 3 commits
  9. 12 Jul, 2017 8 commits
  10. 02 Mar, 2017 1 commit
  11. 28 Feb, 2017 2 commits
    • Manfred Spraul's avatar
      ipc/sem: add hysteresis · 9de5ab8a
      Manfred Spraul authored
      sysv sem has two lock modes: One with per-semaphore locks, one lock mode
      with a single global lock for the whole array.  When switching from the
      per-semaphore locks to the global lock, all per-semaphore locks must be
      scanned for ongoing operations.
      The patch adds a hysteresis for switching from the global lock to the
      per semaphore locks.  This reduces how often the per-semaphore locks
      must be scanned.
      Compared to the initial patch, this is a simplified solution: Setting
      USE_GLOBAL_LOCK_HYSTERESIS to 1 restores the current behavior.
      In theory, a workload with exactly 10 simple sops and then one complex
      op now scales a bit worse, but this is pure theory: If there is
      concurrency, the it won't be exactly 10:1:10:1:10:1:...  If there is no
      concurrency, then there is no need for scalability.
      Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1476851896-3590-3-git-send-email-manfred@colorfullife.comSigned-off-by: default avatarManfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
      Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
      Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
      Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
      Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
      Cc: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com>
      Cc: <1vier1@web.de>
      Cc: kernel test robot <xiaolong.ye@intel.com>
      Cc: <felixh@informatik.uni-bremen.de>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
    • Manfred Spraul's avatar
      ipc/sem.c: avoid using spin_unlock_wait() · 27d7be18
      Manfred Spraul authored
      a) The ACQUIRE in spin_lock() applies to the read, not to the store, at
         least for powerpc.  This forces to add a smp_mb() into the fast path.
      b) The memory barrier provided by spin_unlock_wait() is right now arch
      Therefore: Use spin_lock()/spin_unlock() instead of spin_unlock_wait().
      Advantage: faster single op semop calls(), observed +8.9% on x86.  (the
      other solution would be arch dependencies in ipc/sem).
      Disadvantage: slower complex op semop calls, if (and only if) there are
      no sleeping operations.
      The next patch adds hysteresis, this further reduces the probability
      that the slow path is used.
      Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1476851896-3590-2-git-send-email-manfred@colorfullife.comSigned-off-by: default avatarManfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
      Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
      Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
      Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
      Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
      Cc: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com>
      Cc: <1vier1@web.de>
      Cc: kernel test robot <xiaolong.ye@intel.com>
      Cc: <felixh@informatik.uni-bremen.de>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
  12. 11 Jan, 2017 1 commit
  13. 15 Dec, 2016 7 commits
  14. 11 Oct, 2016 2 commits
    • Nikolay Borisov's avatar
      ipc/sem.c: add cond_resched in exit_sme · 2a1613a5
      Nikolay Borisov authored
      In CONFIG_PREEMPT=n kernel a softlockup was observed while the for loop in
      exit_sem.  Apparently it's possible for the loop to take quite a long time
      and it doesn't have a scheduling point in it.  Since the codes is
      executing under an rcu read section this may also cause rcu stalls, which
      in turn block synchronize_rcu operations, which more or less de-stabilises
      the whole system.
      Fix this by introducing a cond_resched() at the beginning of the loop.
      So this patch fixes the following:
        NMI watchdog: BUG: soft lockup - CPU#10 stuck for 23s! [httpd:18119]
        CPU: 10 PID: 18119 Comm: httpd Tainted: G           O    4.4.20-clouder2 #6
        Hardware name: Supermicro X10DRi/X10DRi, BIOS 1.1 04/14/2015
        task: ffff88348d695280 ti: ffff881c95550000 task.ti: ffff881c95550000
        RIP: 0010:[<ffffffff81614bc7>]  [<ffffffff81614bc7>] _raw_spin_lock+0x17/0x30
        RSP: 0018:ffff881c95553e40  EFLAGS: 00000246
        RAX: 0000000000000000 RBX: ffff883161b1eea8 RCX: 000000000000000d
        RDX: 0000000000000001 RSI: 000000000000000e RDI: ffff883161b1eea4
        RBP: ffff881c95553ea0 R08: ffff881c95553e68 R09: ffff883fef376f88
        R10: ffff881fffb58c20 R11: ffffea0072556600 R12: ffff883161b1eea0
        R13: ffff88348d695280 R14: ffff883dec427000 R15: ffff8831621672a0
        FS:  0000000000000000(0000) GS:ffff881fffb40000(0000) knlGS:0000000000000000
        CS:  0010 DS: 0000 ES: 0000 CR0: 0000000080050033
        CR2: 00007f3b3723e020 CR3: 0000000001c0a000 CR4: 00000000001406e0
        Call Trace:
          ? exit_sem+0x7c/0x280
      Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1475154992-6363-1-git-send-email-kernel@kyup.comSigned-off-by: default avatarNikolay Borisov <kernel@kyup.com>
      Cc: Herton R. Krzesinski <herton@redhat.com>
      Cc: Fabian Frederick <fabf@skynet.be>
      Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
      Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
    • Manfred Spraul's avatar
      ipc/sem.c: fix complex_count vs. simple op race · 5864a2fd
      Manfred Spraul authored
      Commit 6d07b68c ("ipc/sem.c: optimize sem_lock()") introduced a
      sem_lock has a fast path that allows parallel simple operations.
      There are two reasons why a simple operation cannot run in parallel:
       - a non-simple operations is ongoing (sma->sem_perm.lock held)
       - a complex operation is sleeping (sma->complex_count != 0)
      As both facts are stored independently, a thread can bypass the current
      checks by sleeping in the right positions.  See below for more details
      (or kernel bugzilla 105651).
      The patch fixes that by creating one variable (complex_mode)
      that tracks both reasons why parallel operations are not possible.
      The patch also updates stale documentation regarding the locking.
      With regards to stable kernels:
      The patch is required for all kernels that include the
      commit 6d07b68c ("ipc/sem.c: optimize sem_lock()") (3.10?)
      The alternative is to revert the patch that introduced the race.
      The patch is safe for backporting, i.e. it makes no assumptions
      about memory barriers in spin_unlock_wait().
      Here is the race of the current implementation:
      Thread A: (simple op)
      - does the first "sma->complex_count == 0" test
      Thread B: (complex op)
      - does sem_lock(): This includes an array scan. But the scan can't
        find Thread A, because Thread A does not own sem->lock yet.
      - the thread does the operation, increases complex_count,
        drops sem_lock, sleeps
      Thread A:
      - spin_lock(&sem->lock), spin_is_locked(sma->sem_perm.lock)
      - sleeps before the complex_count test
      Thread C: (complex op)
      - does sem_lock (no array scan, complex_count==1)
      - wakes up Thread B.
      - decrements complex_count
      Thread A:
      - does the complex_count test
      Now both thread A and thread C operate on the same array, without
      any synchronization.
      Fixes: 6d07b68c ("ipc/sem.c: optimize sem_lock()")
      Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1469123695-5661-1-git-send-email-manfred@colorfullife.com
      Reported-by: <felixh@informatik.uni-bremen.de>
      Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@zytor.com>
      Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
      Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dave@stgolabs.net>
      Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
      Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
      Cc: <1vier1@web.de>
      Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org>	[3.10+]
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
  15. 02 Aug, 2016 1 commit
    • Fabian Frederick's avatar
      sysv, ipc: fix security-layer leaking · 9b24fef9
      Fabian Frederick authored
      Commit 53dad6d3 ("ipc: fix race with LSMs") updated ipc_rcu_putref()
      to receive rcu freeing function but used generic ipc_rcu_free() instead
      of msg_rcu_free() which does security cleaning.
      Running LTP msgsnd06 with kmemleak gives the following:
        cat /sys/kernel/debug/kmemleak
        unreferenced object 0xffff88003c0a11f8 (size 8):
          comm "msgsnd06", pid 1645, jiffies 4294672526 (age 6.549s)
          hex dump (first 8 bytes):
            1b 00 00 00 01 00 00 00                          ........
      Manfred Spraul suggested to fix sem.c as well and Davidlohr Bueso to
      only use ipc_rcu_free in case of security allocation failure in newary()
      Fixes: 53dad6d3 ("ipc: fix race with LSMs")
      Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/1470083552-22966-1-git-send-email-fabf@skynet.beSigned-off-by: default avatarFabian Frederick <fabf@skynet.be>
      Cc: Davidlohr Bueso <dbueso@suse.de>
      Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
      Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org>	[3.12+]
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
  16. 14 Jun, 2016 2 commits
  17. 22 Mar, 2016 1 commit
    • Davidlohr Bueso's avatar
      ipc/sem: make semctl setting sempid consistent · a5f4db87
      Davidlohr Bueso authored
      As indicated by bug#112271, Linux sets the sempid value upon semctl, and
      not only for semop calls.  However, within semctl we only do this for
      SETVAL, leaving SETALL without updating the field, and therefore rather
      inconsistent behavior when compared to other Unices.
      There is really no documentation regarding this and therefore users
      should not make assumptions.  With this patch, along with updating
      semctl.2 manpages, this scenario should become less ambiguous As such,
      set sempid on SETALL cmd.
      Also update some in-code documentation, specifying where the sempid is
      Passes ltp and custom testcase where a child (fork) does SETALL to the
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavidlohr Bueso <dbueso@suse.de>
      Reported-by: default avatarPhilip Semanchuk <linux_kernel.20.ick@spamgourmet.com>
      Cc: Michael Kerrisk <mtk.manpages@gmail.com>
      Cc: PrasannaKumar Muralidharan <prasannatsmkumar@gmail.com>
      Cc: Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
      Cc: Herton R. Krzesinski <herton@redhat.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
  18. 23 Jan, 2016 1 commit