1. 16 Nov, 2017 1 commit
    • Jaewon Kim's avatar
      mm/page_ext.c: check if page_ext is not prepared · e492080e
      Jaewon Kim authored
      online_page_ext() and page_ext_init() allocate page_ext for each
      section, but they do not allocate if the first PFN is !pfn_present(pfn)
      or !pfn_valid(pfn).  Then section->page_ext remains as NULL.
      lookup_page_ext checks NULL only if CONFIG_DEBUG_VM is enabled.  For a
      valid PFN, __set_page_owner will try to get page_ext through
      lookup_page_ext.  Without CONFIG_DEBUG_VM lookup_page_ext will misuse
      NULL pointer as value 0.  This incurrs invalid address access.
      This is the panic example when PFN 0x100000 is not valid but PFN
      0x13FC00 is being used for page_ext.  section->page_ext is NULL,
      get_entry returned invalid page_ext address as 0x1DFA000 for a PFN
      To avoid this panic, CONFIG_DEBUG_VM should be removed so that page_ext
      will be checked at all times.
        Unable to handle kernel paging request at virtual address 01dfa014
        ------------[ cut here ]------------
        Kernel BUG at ffffff80082371e0 [verbose debug info unavailable]
        Internal error: Oops: 96000045 [#1] PREEMPT SMP
        Modules linked in:
        PC is at __set_page_owner+0x48/0x78
        LR is at __set_page_owner+0x44/0x78
      Pre-4.7 kernels also need commit f86e4271 ("mm: check the return
      value of lookup_page_ext for all call sites").
      Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20171107094131.14621-1-jaewon31.kim@samsung.com
      Fixes: eefa864b ("mm/page_ext: resurrect struct page extending code for debugging")
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJaewon Kim <jaewon31.kim@samsung.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarMichal Hocko <mhocko@suse.com>
      Cc: Vlastimil Babka <vbabka@suse.cz>
      Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org>
      Cc: Joonsoo Kim <js1304@gmail.com>
      Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org>	[depends on f86e4271, see above]
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
  2. 02 Nov, 2017 1 commit
    • Greg Kroah-Hartman's avatar
      License cleanup: add SPDX GPL-2.0 license identifier to files with no license · b2441318
      Greg Kroah-Hartman authored
      Many source files in the tree are missing licensing information, which
      makes it harder for compliance tools to determine the correct license.
      By default all files without license information are under the default
      license of the kernel, which is GPL version 2.
      Update the files which contain no license information with the 'GPL-2.0'
      SPDX license identifier.  The SPDX identifier is a legally binding
      shorthand, which can be used instead of the full boiler plate text.
      This patch is based on work done by Thomas Gleixner and Kate Stewart and
      Philippe Ombredanne.
      How this work was done:
      Patches were generated and checked against linux-4.14-rc6 for a subset of
      the use cases:
       - file had no licensing information it it.
       - file was a */uapi/* one with no licensing information in it,
       - file was a */uapi/* one with existing licensing information,
      Further patches will be generated in subsequent months to fix up cases
      where non-standard license headers were used, and references to license
      had to be inferred by heuristics based on keywords.
      The analysis to determine which SPDX License Identifier to be applied to
      a file was done in a spreadsheet of side by side results from of the
      output of two independent scanners (ScanCode & Windriver) producing SPDX
      tag:value files created by Philippe Ombredanne.  Philippe prepared the
      base worksheet, and did an initial spot review of a few 1000 files.
      The 4.13 kernel was the starting point of the analysis with 60,537 files
      assessed.  Kate Stewart did a file by file comparison of the scanner
      results in the spreadsheet to determine which SPDX license identifier(s)
      to be applied to the file. She confirmed any determination that was not
      immediately clear with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
      Criteria used to select files for SPDX license identifier tagging was:
       - Files considered eligible had to be source code files.
       - Make and config files were included as candidates if they contained >5
         lines of source
       - File already had some variant of a license header in it (even if <5
      All documentation files were explicitly excluded.
      The following heuristics were used to determine which SPDX license
      identifiers to apply.
       - when both scanners couldn't find any license traces, file was
         considered to have no license information in it, and the top level
         COPYING file license applied.
         For non */uapi/* files that summary was:
         SPDX license identifier                            # files
         GPL-2.0                                              11139
         and resulted in the first patch in this series.
         If that file was a */uapi/* path one, it was "GPL-2.0 WITH
         Linux-syscall-note" otherwise it was "GPL-2.0".  Results of that was:
         SPDX license identifier                            # files
         GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note                        930
         and resulted in the second patch in this series.
       - if a file had some form of licensing information in it, and was one
         of the */uapi/* ones, it was denoted with the Linux-syscall-note if
         any GPL family license was found in the file or had no licensing in
         it (per prior point).  Results summary:
         SPDX license identifier                            # files
         GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note                       270
         GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                      169
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-2-Clause)    21
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause)    17
         LGPL-2.1+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                      15
         GPL-1.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                       14
         ((GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause)    5
         LGPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                       4
         LGPL-2.1 WITH Linux-syscall-note                        3
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR MIT)              3
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) AND MIT)             1
         and that resulted in the third patch in this series.
       - when the two scanners agreed on the detected license(s), that became
         the concluded license(s).
       - when there was disagreement between the two scanners (one detected a
         license but the other didn't, or they both detected different
         licenses) a manual inspection of the file occurred.
       - In most cases a manual inspection of the information in the file
         resulted in a clear resolution of the license that should apply (and
         which scanner probably needed to revisit its heuristics).
       - When it was not immediately clear, the license identifier was
         confirmed with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
       - If there was any question as to the appropriate license identifier,
         the file was flagged for further research and to be revisited later
         in time.
      In total, over 70 hours of logged manual review was done on the
      spreadsheet to determine the SPDX license identifiers to apply to the
      source files by Kate, Philippe, Thomas and, in some cases, confirmation
      by lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
      Kate also obtained a third independent scan of the 4.13 code base from
      FOSSology, and compared selected files where the other two scanners
      disagreed against that SPDX file, to see if there was new insights.  The
      Windriver scanner is based on an older version of FOSSology in part, so
      they are related.
      Thomas did random spot checks in about 500 files from the spreadsheets
      for the uapi headers and agreed with SPDX license identifier in the
      files he inspected. For the non-uapi files Thomas did random spot checks
      in about 15000 files.
      In initial set of patches against 4.14-rc6, 3 files were found to have
      copy/paste license identifier errors, and have been fixed to reflect the
      correct identifier.
      Additionally Philippe spent 10 hours this week doing a detailed manual
      inspection and review of the 12,461 patched files from the initial patch
      version early this week with:
       - a full scancode scan run, collecting the matched texts, detected
         license ids and scores
       - reviewing anything where there was a license detected (about 500+
         files) to ensure that the applied SPDX license was correct
       - reviewing anything where there was no detection but the patch license
         was not GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note to ensure that the applied
         SPDX license was correct
      This produced a worksheet with 20 files needing minor correction.  This
      worksheet was then exported into 3 different .csv files for the
      different types of files to be modified.
      These .csv files were then reviewed by Greg.  Thomas wrote a script to
      parse the csv files and add the proper SPDX tag to the file, in the
      format that the file expected.  This script was further refined by Greg
      based on the output to detect more types of files automatically and to
      distinguish between header and source .c files (which need different
      comment types.)  Finally Greg ran the script using the .csv files to
      generate the patches.
      Reviewed-by: default avatarKate Stewart <kstewart@linuxfoundation.org>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarPhilippe Ombredanne <pombredanne@nexb.com>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarThomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarGreg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
  3. 07 Sep, 2017 2 commits
  4. 03 May, 2017 1 commit
  5. 08 Oct, 2016 2 commits
  6. 27 May, 2016 1 commit
  7. 15 Mar, 2016 1 commit
    • Laura Abbott's avatar
      mm/page_poisoning.c: allow for zero poisoning · 1414c7f4
      Laura Abbott authored
      By default, page poisoning uses a poison value (0xaa) on free.  If this
      is changed to 0, the page is not only sanitized but zeroing on alloc
      with __GFP_ZERO can be skipped as well.  The tradeoff is that detecting
      corruption from the poisoning is harder to detect.  This feature also
      cannot be used with hibernation since pages are not guaranteed to be
      zeroed after hibernation.
      Credit to Grsecurity/PaX team for inspiring this work
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLaura Abbott <labbott@fedoraproject.org>
      Acked-by: default avatarRafael J. Wysocki <rjw@rjwysocki.net>
      Cc: "Kirill A. Shutemov" <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com>
      Cc: Vlastimil Babka <vbabka@suse.cz>
      Cc: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.com>
      Cc: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
      Cc: Mathias Krause <minipli@googlemail.com>
      Cc: Dave Hansen <dave.hansen@intel.com>
      Cc: Jianyu Zhan <nasa4836@gmail.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
  8. 10 Sep, 2015 1 commit
    • Vladimir Davydov's avatar
      mm: introduce idle page tracking · 33c3fc71
      Vladimir Davydov authored
      Knowing the portion of memory that is not used by a certain application or
      memory cgroup (idle memory) can be useful for partitioning the system
      efficiently, e.g.  by setting memory cgroup limits appropriately.
      Currently, the only means to estimate the amount of idle memory provided
      by the kernel is /proc/PID/{clear_refs,smaps}: the user can clear the
      access bit for all pages mapped to a particular process by writing 1 to
      clear_refs, wait for some time, and then count smaps:Referenced.  However,
      this method has two serious shortcomings:
       - it does not count unmapped file pages
       - it affects the reclaimer logic
      To overcome these drawbacks, this patch introduces two new page flags,
      Idle and Young, and a new sysfs file, /sys/kernel/mm/page_idle/bitmap.
      A page's Idle flag can only be set from userspace by setting bit in
      /sys/kernel/mm/page_idle/bitmap at the offset corresponding to the page,
      and it is cleared whenever the page is accessed either through page tables
      (it is cleared in page_referenced() in this case) or using the read(2)
      system call (mark_page_accessed()). Thus by setting the Idle flag for
      pages of a particular workload, which can be found e.g.  by reading
      /proc/PID/pagemap, waiting for some time to let the workload access its
      working set, and then reading the bitmap file, one can estimate the amount
      of pages that are not used by the workload.
      The Young page flag is used to avoid interference with the memory
      reclaimer.  A page's Young flag is set whenever the Access bit of a page
      table entry pointing to the page is cleared by writing to the bitmap file.
      If page_referenced() is called on a Young page, it will add 1 to its
      return value, therefore concealing the fact that the Access bit was
      Note, since there is no room for extra page flags on 32 bit, this feature
      uses extended page flags when compiled on 32 bit.
      [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix build]
      [akpm@linux-foundation.org: kpageidle requires an MMU]
      [akpm@linux-foundation.org: decouple from page-flags rework]
      Signed-off-by: default avatarVladimir Davydov <vdavydov@parallels.com>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarAndres Lagar-Cavilla <andreslc@google.com>
      Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org>
      Cc: Raghavendra K T <raghavendra.kt@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
      Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
      Cc: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.cz>
      Cc: Greg Thelen <gthelen@google.com>
      Cc: Michel Lespinasse <walken@google.com>
      Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
      Cc: Pavel Emelyanov <xemul@parallels.com>
      Cc: Cyrill Gorcunov <gorcunov@openvz.org>
      Cc: Jonathan Corbet <corbet@lwn.net>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
  9. 13 Dec, 2014 3 commits
    • Joonsoo Kim's avatar
      mm/page_owner: keep track of page owners · 48c96a36
      Joonsoo Kim authored
      This is the page owner tracking code which is introduced so far ago.  It
      is resident on Andrew's tree, though, nobody tried to upstream so it
      remain as is.  Our company uses this feature actively to debug memory leak
      or to find a memory hogger so I decide to upstream this feature.
      This functionality help us to know who allocates the page.  When
      allocating a page, we store some information about allocation in extra
      memory.  Later, if we need to know status of all pages, we can get and
      analyze it from this stored information.
      In previous version of this feature, extra memory is statically defined in
      struct page, but, in this version, extra memory is allocated outside of
      struct page.  It enables us to turn on/off this feature at boottime
      without considerable memory waste.
      Although we already have tracepoint for tracing page allocation/free,
      using it to analyze page owner is rather complex.  We need to enlarge the
      trace buffer for preventing overlapping until userspace program launched.
      And, launched program continually dump out the trace buffer for later
      analysis and it would change system behaviour with more possibility rather
      than just keeping it in memory, so bad for debug.
      Moreover, we can use page_owner feature further for various purposes.  For
      example, we can use it for fragmentation statistics implemented in this
      patch.  And, I also plan to implement some CMA failure debugging feature
      using this interface.
      I'd like to give the credit for all developers contributed this feature,
      but, it's not easy because I don't know exact history.  Sorry about that.
      Below is people who has "Signed-off-by" in the patches in Andrew's tree.
      Alexander Nyberg <alexn@dsv.su.se>
      Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de>
      Dave Hansen <dave@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
      Minchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org>
      Michal Nazarewicz <mina86@mina86.com>
      Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Jungsoo Son <jungsoo.son@lge.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJoonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com>
      Cc: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de>
      Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
      Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org>
      Cc: Dave Hansen <dave@sr71.net>
      Cc: Michal Nazarewicz <mina86@mina86.com>
      Cc: Jungsoo Son <jungsoo.son@lge.com>
      Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com>
      Cc: Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
    • Joonsoo Kim's avatar
      mm/debug-pagealloc: prepare boottime configurable on/off · e30825f1
      Joonsoo Kim authored
      Until now, debug-pagealloc needs extra flags in struct page, so we need to
      recompile whole source code when we decide to use it.  This is really
      painful, because it takes some time to recompile and sometimes rebuild is
      not possible due to third party module depending on struct page.  So, we
      can't use this good feature in many cases.
      Now, we have the page extension feature that allows us to insert extra
      flags to outside of struct page.  This gets rid of third party module
      issue mentioned above.  And, this allows us to determine if we need extra
      memory for this page extension in boottime.  With these property, we can
      avoid using debug-pagealloc in boottime with low computational overhead in
      the kernel built with CONFIG_DEBUG_PAGEALLOC.  This will help our
      development process greatly.
      This patch is the preparation step to achive above goal.  debug-pagealloc
      originally uses extra field of struct page, but, after this patch, it will
      use field of struct page_ext.  Because memory for page_ext is allocated
      later than initialization of page allocator in CONFIG_SPARSEMEM, we should
      disable debug-pagealloc feature temporarily until initialization of
      page_ext.  This patch implements this.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJoonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com>
      Cc: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de>
      Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
      Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org>
      Cc: Dave Hansen <dave@sr71.net>
      Cc: Michal Nazarewicz <mina86@mina86.com>
      Cc: Jungsoo Son <jungsoo.son@lge.com>
      Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com>
      Cc: Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
    • Joonsoo Kim's avatar
      mm/page_ext: resurrect struct page extending code for debugging · eefa864b
      Joonsoo Kim authored
      When we debug something, we'd like to insert some information to every
      page.  For this purpose, we sometimes modify struct page itself.  But,
      this has drawbacks.  First, it requires re-compile.  This makes us
      hesitate to use the powerful debug feature so development process is
      slowed down.  And, second, sometimes it is impossible to rebuild the
      kernel due to third party module dependency.  At third, system behaviour
      would be largely different after re-compile, because it changes size of
      struct page greatly and this structure is accessed by every part of
      kernel.  Keeping this as it is would be better to reproduce errornous
      This feature is intended to overcome above mentioned problems.  This
      feature allocates memory for extended data per page in certain place
      rather than the struct page itself.  This memory can be accessed by the
      accessor functions provided by this code.  During the boot process, it
      checks whether allocation of huge chunk of memory is needed or not.  If
      not, it avoids allocating memory at all.  With this advantage, we can
      include this feature into the kernel in default and can avoid rebuild and
      solve related problems.
      Until now, memcg uses this technique.  But, now, memcg decides to embed
      their variable to struct page itself and it's code to extend struct page
      has been removed.  I'd like to use this code to develop debug feature, so
      this patch resurrect it.
      To help these things to work well, this patch introduces two callbacks for
      clients.  One is the need callback which is mandatory if user wants to
      avoid useless memory allocation at boot-time.  The other is optional, init
      callback, which is used to do proper initialization after memory is
      allocated.  Detailed explanation about purpose of these functions is in
      code comment.  Please refer it.
      Others are completely same with previous extension code in memcg.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJoonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com>
      Cc: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de>
      Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org>
      Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org>
      Cc: Dave Hansen <dave@sr71.net>
      Cc: Michal Nazarewicz <mina86@mina86.com>
      Cc: Jungsoo Son <jungsoo.son@lge.com>
      Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com>
      Cc: Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>