1. 02 Nov, 2017 1 commit
    • Greg Kroah-Hartman's avatar
      License cleanup: add SPDX GPL-2.0 license identifier to files with no license · b2441318
      Greg Kroah-Hartman authored
      Many source files in the tree are missing licensing information, which
      makes it harder for compliance tools to determine the correct license.
      By default all files without license information are under the default
      license of the kernel, which is GPL version 2.
      Update the files which contain no license information with the 'GPL-2.0'
      SPDX license identifier.  The SPDX identifier is a legally binding
      shorthand, which can be used instead of the full boiler plate text.
      This patch is based on work done by Thomas Gleixner and Kate Stewart and
      Philippe Ombredanne.
      How this work was done:
      Patches were generated and checked against linux-4.14-rc6 for a subset of
      the use cases:
       - file had no licensing information it it.
       - file was a */uapi/* one with no licensing information in it,
       - file was a */uapi/* one with existing licensing information,
      Further patches will be generated in subsequent months to fix up cases
      where non-standard license headers were used, and references to license
      had to be inferred by heuristics based on keywords.
      The analysis to determine which SPDX License Identifier to be applied to
      a file was done in a spreadsheet of side by side results from of the
      output of two independent scanners (ScanCode & Windriver) producing SPDX
      tag:value files created by Philippe Ombredanne.  Philippe prepared the
      base worksheet, and did an initial spot review of a few 1000 files.
      The 4.13 kernel was the starting point of the analysis with 60,537 files
      assessed.  Kate Stewart did a file by file comparison of the scanner
      results in the spreadsheet to determine which SPDX license identifier(s)
      to be applied to the file. She confirmed any determination that was not
      immediately clear with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
      Criteria used to select files for SPDX license identifier tagging was:
       - Files considered eligible had to be source code files.
       - Make and config files were included as candidates if they contained >5
         lines of source
       - File already had some variant of a license header in it (even if <5
      All documentation files were explicitly excluded.
      The following heuristics were used to determine which SPDX license
      identifiers to apply.
       - when both scanners couldn't find any license traces, file was
         considered to have no license information in it, and the top level
         COPYING file license applied.
         For non */uapi/* files that summary was:
         SPDX license identifier                            # files
         GPL-2.0                                              11139
         and resulted in the first patch in this series.
         If that file was a */uapi/* path one, it was "GPL-2.0 WITH
         Linux-syscall-note" otherwise it was "GPL-2.0".  Results of that was:
         SPDX license identifier                            # files
         GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note                        930
         and resulted in the second patch in this series.
       - if a file had some form of licensing information in it, and was one
         of the */uapi/* ones, it was denoted with the Linux-syscall-note if
         any GPL family license was found in the file or had no licensing in
         it (per prior point).  Results summary:
         SPDX license identifier                            # files
         GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note                       270
         GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                      169
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-2-Clause)    21
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause)    17
         LGPL-2.1+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                      15
         GPL-1.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                       14
         ((GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause)    5
         LGPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                       4
         LGPL-2.1 WITH Linux-syscall-note                        3
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR MIT)              3
         ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) AND MIT)             1
         and that resulted in the third patch in this series.
       - when the two scanners agreed on the detected license(s), that became
         the concluded license(s).
       - when there was disagreement between the two scanners (one detected a
         license but the other didn't, or they both detected different
         licenses) a manual inspection of the file occurred.
       - In most cases a manual inspection of the information in the file
         resulted in a clear resolution of the license that should apply (and
         which scanner probably needed to revisit its heuristics).
       - When it was not immediately clear, the license identifier was
         confirmed with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
       - If there was any question as to the appropriate license identifier,
         the file was flagged for further research and to be revisited later
         in time.
      In total, over 70 hours of logged manual review was done on the
      spreadsheet to determine the SPDX license identifiers to apply to the
      source files by Kate, Philippe, Thomas and, in some cases, confirmation
      by lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
      Kate also obtained a third independent scan of the 4.13 code base from
      FOSSology, and compared selected files where the other two scanners
      disagreed against that SPDX file, to see if there was new insights.  The
      Windriver scanner is based on an older version of FOSSology in part, so
      they are related.
      Thomas did random spot checks in about 500 files from the spreadsheets
      for the uapi headers and agreed with SPDX license identifier in the
      files he inspected. For the non-uapi files Thomas did random spot checks
      in about 15000 files.
      In initial set of patches against 4.14-rc6, 3 files were found to have
      copy/paste license identifier errors, and have been fixed to reflect the
      correct identifier.
      Additionally Philippe spent 10 hours this week doing a detailed manual
      inspection and review of the 12,461 patched files from the initial patch
      version early this week with:
       - a full scancode scan run, collecting the matched texts, detected
         license ids and scores
       - reviewing anything where there was a license detected (about 500+
         files) to ensure that the applied SPDX license was correct
       - reviewing anything where there was no detection but the patch license
         was not GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note to ensure that the applied
         SPDX license was correct
      This produced a worksheet with 20 files needing minor correction.  This
      worksheet was then exported into 3 different .csv files for the
      different types of files to be modified.
      These .csv files were then reviewed by Greg.  Thomas wrote a script to
      parse the csv files and add the proper SPDX tag to the file, in the
      format that the file expected.  This script was further refined by Greg
      based on the output to detect more types of files automatically and to
      distinguish between header and source .c files (which need different
      comment types.)  Finally Greg ran the script using the .csv files to
      generate the patches.
      Reviewed-by: default avatarKate Stewart <kstewart@linuxfoundation.org>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarPhilippe Ombredanne <pombredanne@nexb.com>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarThomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarGreg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
  2. 28 Aug, 2017 1 commit
    • David Jeffery's avatar
      block: fix warning when I/O elevator is changed as request_queue is being removed · e9a823fb
      David Jeffery authored
      There is a race between changing I/O elevator and request_queue removal
      which can trigger the warning in kobject_add_internal.  A program can
      use sysfs to request a change of elevator at the same time another task
      is unregistering the request_queue the elevator would be attached to.
      The elevator's kobject will then attempt to be connected to the
      request_queue in the object tree when the request_queue has just been
      removed from sysfs.  This triggers the warning in kobject_add_internal
      as the request_queue no longer has a sysfs directory:
      kobject_add_internal failed for iosched (error: -2 parent: queue)
      ------------[ cut here ]------------
      WARNING: CPU: 3 PID: 14075 at lib/kobject.c:244 kobject_add_internal+0x103/0x2d0
      To fix this warning, we can check the QUEUE_FLAG_REGISTERED flag when
      changing the elevator and use the request_queue's sysfs_lock to
      serialize between clearing the flag and the elevator testing the flag.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarDavid Jeffery <djeffery@redhat.com>
      Tested-by: default avatarMing Lei <ming.lei@redhat.com>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarMing Lei <ming.lei@redhat.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk>
  3. 14 Jun, 2017 1 commit
    • Bart Van Assche's avatar
      block: Fix a blk_exit_rl() regression · dc9edc44
      Bart Van Assche authored
      Avoid that the following complaint is reported:
       BUG: sleeping function called from invalid context at kernel/workqueue.c:2790
       in_atomic(): 1, irqs_disabled(): 0, pid: 41, name: rcuop/3
       1 lock held by rcuop/3/41:
        #0:  (rcu_callback){......}, at: [<ffffffff8111f9a2>] rcu_nocb_kthread+0x282/0x500
       Call Trace:
      This happens since we invoke callbacks that need to block from the
      queue release handler. Fix this by pushing the final release to
      a workqueue.
      Reported-by: default avatarRoss Zwisler <zwisler@gmail.com>
      Fixes: commit b425e504 ("block: Avoid that blk_exit_rl() triggers a use-after-free")
      Signed-off-by: default avatarBart Van Assche <bart.vanassche@sandisk.com>
      Tested-by: default avatarRoss Zwisler <ross.zwisler@linux.intel.com>
      Updated changelog
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@fb.com>
  4. 01 Jun, 2017 1 commit
    • Bart Van Assche's avatar
      block: Avoid that blk_exit_rl() triggers a use-after-free · b425e504
      Bart Van Assche authored
      Since the introduction of .init_rq_fn() and .exit_rq_fn() it is
      essential that the memory allocated for struct request_queue
      stays around until all blk_exit_rl() calls have finished. Hence
      make blk_init_rl() take a reference on struct request_queue.
      This patch fixes the following crash:
      general protection fault: 0000 [#2] SMP
      CPU: 3 PID: 28 Comm: ksoftirqd/3 Tainted: G      D         4.12.0-rc2-dbg+ #2
      Hardware name: QEMU Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996), BIOS 1.0.0-prebuilt.qemu-project.org 04/01/2014
      task: ffff88013a108040 task.stack: ffffc9000071c000
      RIP: 0010:free_request_size+0x1a/0x30
      RSP: 0018:ffffc9000071fd38 EFLAGS: 00010202
      RAX: 6b6b6b6b6b6b6b6b RBX: ffff880067362a88 RCX: 0000000000000003
      RDX: ffff880067464178 RSI: ffff880067362a88 RDI: ffff880135ea4418
      RBP: ffffc9000071fd40 R08: 0000000000000000 R09: 0000000100180009
      R10: ffffc9000071fd38 R11: ffffffff81110800 R12: ffff88006752d3d8
      R13: ffff88006752d3d8 R14: ffff88013a108040 R15: 000000000000000a
      FS:  0000000000000000(0000) GS:ffff88013fd80000(0000) knlGS:0000000000000000
      CS:  0010 DS: 0000 ES: 0000 CR0: 0000000080050033
      CR2: 00007fa8ec1edb00 CR3: 0000000138ee8000 CR4: 00000000001406e0
      Call Trace:
      Fixes: commit e9c787e6 ("scsi: allocate scsi_cmnd structures as part of struct request")
      Signed-off-by: default avatarBart Van Assche <bart.vanassche@sandisk.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarTejun Heo <tj@kernel.org>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarHannes Reinecke <hare@suse.com>
      Reviewed-by: default avatarChristoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
      Cc: Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz>
      Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org> # v4.11+
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@fb.com>
  5. 26 May, 2017 1 commit
  6. 04 May, 2017 2 commits
  7. 26 Apr, 2017 1 commit
  8. 19 Apr, 2017 1 commit
  9. 08 Apr, 2017 1 commit
  10. 07 Apr, 2017 1 commit
  11. 29 Mar, 2017 2 commits
  12. 28 Mar, 2017 2 commits
    • Shaohua Li's avatar
      blk-throttle: choose a small throtl_slice for SSD · d61fcfa4
      Shaohua Li authored
      The throtl_slice is 100ms by default. This is a long time for SSD, a lot
      of IO can run. To make cgroups have smoother throughput, we choose a
      small value (20ms) for SSD.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarShaohua Li <shli@fb.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@fb.com>
    • Shaohua Li's avatar
      blk-throttle: make throtl_slice tunable · 297e3d85
      Shaohua Li authored
      throtl_slice is important for blk-throttling. It's called slice
      internally but it really is a time window blk-throttling samples data.
      blk-throttling will make decision based on the samplings. An example is
      bandwidth measurement. A cgroup's bandwidth is measured in the time
      interval of throtl_slice.
      A small throtl_slice meanse cgroups have smoother throughput but burn
      more CPUs. It has 100ms default value, which is not appropriate for all
      disks. A fast SSD can dispatch a lot of IOs in 100ms. This patch makes
      it tunable.
      Since throtl_slice isn't a time slice, the sysfs name
      'throttle_sample_time' reflects its character better.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarShaohua Li <shli@fb.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@fb.com>
  13. 21 Mar, 2017 2 commits
    • Omar Sandoval's avatar
      blk-stat: convert to callback-based statistics reporting · 34dbad5d
      Omar Sandoval authored
      Currently, statistics are gathered in ~0.13s windows, and users grab the
      statistics whenever they need them. This is not ideal for both in-tree
      1. Writeback throttling wants its own dynamically sized window of
         statistics. Since the blk-stats statistics are reset after every
         window and the wbt windows don't line up with the blk-stats windows,
         wbt doesn't see every I/O.
      2. Polling currently grabs the statistics on every I/O. Again, depending
         on how the window lines up, we may miss some I/Os. It's also
         unnecessary overhead to get the statistics on every I/O; the hybrid
         polling heuristic would be just as happy with the statistics from the
         previous full window.
      This reworks the blk-stats infrastructure to be callback-based: users
      register a callback that they want called at a given time with all of
      the statistics from the window during which the callback was active.
      Users can dynamically bucketize the statistics. wbt and polling both
      currently use read vs. write, but polling can be extended to further
      subdivide based on request size.
      The callbacks are kept on an RCU list, and each callback has percpu
      stats buffers. There will only be a few users, so the overhead on the
      I/O completion side is low. The stats flushing is also simplified
      considerably: since the timer function is responsible for clearing the
      statistics, we don't have to worry about stale statistics.
      wbt is a trivial conversion. After the conversion, the windowing problem
      mentioned above is fixed.
      For polling, we register an extra callback that caches the previous
      window's statistics in the struct request_queue for the hybrid polling
      heuristic to use.
      Since we no longer have a single stats buffer for the request queue,
      this also removes the sysfs and debugfs stats entries. To replace those,
      we add a debugfs entry for the poll statistics.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarOmar Sandoval <osandov@fb.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@fb.com>
    • Omar Sandoval's avatar
      blk-stat: use READ and WRITE instead of BLK_STAT_{READ,WRITE} · fa2e39cb
      Omar Sandoval authored
      The stats buckets will become generic soon, so make the existing users
      use the common READ and WRITE definitions instead of one internal to
      Signed-off-by: default avatarOmar Sandoval <osandov@fb.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@fb.com>
  14. 02 Mar, 2017 1 commit
  15. 15 Feb, 2017 1 commit
    • Tahsin Erdogan's avatar
      block: do not allow updates through sysfs until registration completes · b410aff2
      Tahsin Erdogan authored
      When a new disk shows up, sysfs queue directory is created before elevator
      is registered. This allows a user to attempt a scheduler switch even though
      the initial registration hasn't completed yet.
      In one scenario, blk_register_queue() calls elv_register_queue() and
      right before cfq_registered_queue() is called, another process executes
      elevator_switch() and replaces q->elevator with deadline scheduler. When
      cfq_registered_queue() executes it interprets e->elevator_data as struct
      cfq_data even though it is actually struct deadline_data.
      Grab q->sysfs_lock in blk_register_queue() to synchronize with sysfs
      Signed-off-by: default avatarTahsin Erdogan <tahsin@google.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@fb.com>
  16. 08 Feb, 2017 1 commit
  17. 06 Feb, 2017 1 commit
  18. 02 Feb, 2017 3 commits
  19. 27 Jan, 2017 1 commit
  20. 13 Dec, 2016 1 commit
  21. 01 Dec, 2016 1 commit
  22. 28 Nov, 2016 2 commits
  23. 17 Nov, 2016 2 commits
    • Jens Axboe's avatar
      blk-mq: make the polling code adaptive · 64f1c21e
      Jens Axboe authored
      The previous commit introduced the hybrid sleep/poll mode. Take
      that one step further, and use the completion latencies to
      automatically sleep for half the mean completion time. This is
      a good approximation.
      This changes the 'io_poll_delay' sysfs file a bit to expose the
      various options. Depending on the value, the polling code will
      behave differently:
      -1	Never enter hybrid sleep mode
       0	Use half of the completion mean for the sleep delay
      >0	Use this specific value as the sleep delay
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@fb.com>
      Tested-By: default avatarStephen Bates <sbates@raithlin.com>
      Reviewed-By: default avatarStephen Bates <sbates@raithlin.com>
    • Jens Axboe's avatar
      blk-mq: implement hybrid poll mode for sync O_DIRECT · 06426adf
      Jens Axboe authored
      This patch enables a hybrid polling mode. Instead of polling after IO
      submission, we can induce an artificial delay, and then poll after that.
      For example, if the IO is presumed to complete in 8 usecs from now, we
      can sleep for 4 usecs, wake up, and then do our polling. This still puts
      a sleep/wakeup cycle in the IO path, but instead of the wakeup happening
      after the IO has completed, it'll happen before. With this hybrid
      scheme, we can achieve big latency reductions while still using the same
      (or less) amount of CPU.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@fb.com>
      Tested-By: default avatarStephen Bates <sbates@raithlin.com>
      Reviewed-By: default avatarStephen Bates <sbates@raithlin.com>
  24. 11 Nov, 2016 1 commit
  25. 10 Nov, 2016 2 commits
    • Jens Axboe's avatar
      block: hook up writeback throttling · 87760e5e
      Jens Axboe authored
      Enable throttling of buffered writeback to make it a lot
      more smooth, and has way less impact on other system activity.
      Background writeback should be, by definition, background
      activity. The fact that we flush huge bundles of it at the time
      means that it potentially has heavy impacts on foreground workloads,
      which isn't ideal. We can't easily limit the sizes of writes that
      we do, since that would impact file system layout in the presence
      of delayed allocation. So just throttle back buffered writeback,
      unless someone is waiting for it.
      The algorithm for when to throttle takes its inspiration in the
      CoDel networking scheduling algorithm. Like CoDel, blk-wb monitors
      the minimum latencies of requests over a window of time. In that
      window of time, if the minimum latency of any request exceeds a
      given target, then a scale count is incremented and the queue depth
      is shrunk. The next monitoring window is shrunk accordingly. Unlike
      CoDel, if we hit a window that exhibits good behavior, then we
      simply increment the scale count and re-calculate the limits for that
      scale value. This prevents us from oscillating between a
      close-to-ideal value and max all the time, instead remaining in the
      windows where we get good behavior.
      Unlike CoDel, blk-wb allows the scale count to to negative. This
      happens if we primarily have writes going on. Unlike positive
      scale counts, this doesn't change the size of the monitoring window.
      When the heavy writers finish, blk-bw quickly snaps back to it's
      stable state of a zero scale count.
      The patch registers a sysfs entry, 'wb_lat_usec'. This sets the latency
      target to me met. It defaults to 2 msec for non-rotational storage, and
      75 msec for rotational storage. Setting this value to '0' disables
      blk-wb. Generally, a user would not have to touch this setting.
      We don't enable WBT on devices that are managed with CFQ, and have
      a non-root block cgroup attached. If we have a proportional share setup
      on this particular disk, then the wbt throttling will interfere with
      that. We don't have a strong need for wbt for that case, since we will
      rely on CFQ doing that for us.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@fb.com>
    • Jens Axboe's avatar
      block: add scalable completion tracking of requests · cf43e6be
      Jens Axboe authored
      For legacy block, we simply track them in the request queue. For
      blk-mq, we track them on a per-sw queue basis, which we can then
      sum up through the hardware queues and finally to a per device
      The stats are tracked in, roughly, 0.1s interval windows.
      Add sysfs files to display the stats.
      The feature is off by default, to avoid any extra overhead. In-kernel
      users of it can turn it on by setting QUEUE_FLAG_STATS in the queue
      flags. We currently don't turn it on if someone just reads any of
      the stats files, that is something we could add as well.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJens Axboe <axboe@fb.com>
  26. 18 Oct, 2016 2 commits
  27. 21 Sep, 2016 1 commit
  28. 21 Jul, 2016 1 commit
  29. 12 Apr, 2016 1 commit
  30. 04 Apr, 2016 1 commit
    • Kirill A. Shutemov's avatar
      mm, fs: get rid of PAGE_CACHE_* and page_cache_{get,release} macros · 09cbfeaf
      Kirill A. Shutemov authored
      PAGE_CACHE_{SIZE,SHIFT,MASK,ALIGN} macros were introduced *long* time
      ago with promise that one day it will be possible to implement page
      cache with bigger chunks than PAGE_SIZE.
      This promise never materialized.  And unlikely will.
      We have many places where PAGE_CACHE_SIZE assumed to be equal to
      PAGE_SIZE.  And it's constant source of confusion on whether
      PAGE_CACHE_* or PAGE_* constant should be used in a particular case,
      especially on the border between fs and mm.
      Global switching to PAGE_CACHE_SIZE != PAGE_SIZE would cause to much
      breakage to be doable.
      Let's stop pretending that pages in page cache are special.  They are
      The changes are pretty straight-forward:
       - <foo> << (PAGE_CACHE_SHIFT - PAGE_SHIFT) -> <foo>;
       - <foo> >> (PAGE_CACHE_SHIFT - PAGE_SHIFT) -> <foo>;
       - page_cache_get() -> get_page();
       - page_cache_release() -> put_page();
      This patch contains automated changes generated with coccinelle using
      script below.  For some reason, coccinelle doesn't patch header files.
      I've called spatch for them manually.
      The only adjustment after coccinelle is revert of changes to
      PAGE_CAHCE_ALIGN definition: we are going to drop it later.
      There are few places in the code where coccinelle didn't reach.  I'll
      fix them manually in a separate patch.  Comments and documentation also
      will be addressed with the separate patch.
      virtual patch
      expression E;
      + E
      expression E;
      + E
      + PAGE_SHIFT
      + PAGE_SIZE
      + PAGE_MASK
      expression E;
      + PAGE_ALIGN(E)
      expression E;
      - page_cache_get(E)
      + get_page(E)
      expression E;
      - page_cache_release(E)
      + put_page(E)
      Signed-off-by: default avatarKirill A. Shutemov <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com>
      Acked-by: default avatarMichal Hocko <mhocko@suse.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>