Commit 60f30350 authored by Vlastimil Babka's avatar Vlastimil Babka Committed by Linus Torvalds

mm, page_owner: print migratetype of page and pageblock, symbolic flags

The information in /sys/kernel/debug/page_owner includes the migratetype
of the pageblock the page belongs to.  This is also checked against the
page's migratetype (as declared by gfp_flags during its allocation), and
the page is reported as Fallback if its migratetype differs from the
pageblock's one.  t This is somewhat misleading because in fact fallback
allocation is not the only reason why these two can differ.  It also
doesn't direcly provide the page's migratetype, although it's possible
to derive that from the gfp_flags.

It's arguably better to print both page and pageblock's migratetype and
leave the interpretation to the consumer than to suggest fallback
allocation as the only possible reason.  While at it, we can print the
migratetypes as string the same way as /proc/pagetypeinfo does, as some
of the numeric values depend on kernel configuration.  For that, this
patch moves the migratetype_names array from #ifdef CONFIG_PROC_FS part
of mm/vmstat.c to mm/page_alloc.c and exports it.

With the new format strings for flags, we can now also provide symbolic
page and gfp flags in the /sys/kernel/debug/page_owner file.  This
replaces the positional printing of page flags as single letters, which
might have looked nicer, but was limited to a subset of flags, and
required the user to remember the letters.

Example page_owner entry after the patch:

  Page allocated via order 0, mask 0x24213ca(GFP_HIGHUSER_MOVABLE|__GFP_COLD|__GFP_NOWARN|__GFP_NORETRY)
  PFN 520 type Movable Block 1 type Movable Flags 0xfffff8001006c(referenced|uptodate|lru|active|mappedtodisk)
   [<ffffffff811682c4>] __alloc_pages_nodemask+0x134/0x230
   [<ffffffff811b4058>] alloc_pages_current+0x88/0x120
   [<ffffffff8115e386>] __page_cache_alloc+0xe6/0x120
   [<ffffffff8116ba6c>] __do_page_cache_readahead+0xdc/0x240
   [<ffffffff8116bd05>] ondemand_readahead+0x135/0x260
   [<ffffffff8116bfb1>] page_cache_sync_readahead+0x31/0x50
   [<ffffffff81160523>] generic_file_read_iter+0x453/0x760
   [<ffffffff811e0d57>] __vfs_read+0xa7/0xd0
Signed-off-by: default avatarVlastimil Babka <>
Acked-by: default avatarMichal Hocko <>
Cc: Joonsoo Kim <>
Cc: Minchan Kim <>
Cc: Sasha Levin <>
Cc: "Kirill A. Shutemov" <>
Cc: Mel Gorman <>
Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <>
Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <>
parent a0795cd4
......@@ -63,6 +63,9 @@ enum {
/* In mm/page_alloc.c; keep in sync also with show_migration_types() there */
extern char * const migratetype_names[MIGRATE_TYPES];
# define is_migrate_cma(migratetype) unlikely((migratetype) == MIGRATE_CMA)
......@@ -223,6 +223,19 @@ static char * const zone_names[MAX_NR_ZONES] = {
char * const migratetype_names[MIGRATE_TYPES] = {
compound_page_dtor * const compound_page_dtors[] = {
......@@ -100,8 +100,9 @@ print_page_owner(char __user *buf, size_t count, unsigned long pfn,
return -ENOMEM;
ret = snprintf(kbuf, count,
"Page allocated via order %u, mask 0x%x\n",
page_ext->order, page_ext->gfp_mask);
"Page allocated via order %u, mask %#x(%pGg)\n",
page_ext->order, page_ext->gfp_mask,
if (ret >= count)
goto err;
......@@ -110,23 +111,12 @@ print_page_owner(char __user *buf, size_t count, unsigned long pfn,
pageblock_mt = get_pfnblock_migratetype(page, pfn);
page_mt = gfpflags_to_migratetype(page_ext->gfp_mask);
ret += snprintf(kbuf + ret, count - ret,
"PFN %lu Block %lu type %d %s Flags %s%s%s%s%s%s%s%s%s%s%s%s\n",
"PFN %lu type %s Block %lu type %s Flags %#lx(%pGp)\n",
pfn >> pageblock_order,
pageblock_mt != page_mt ? "Fallback" : " ",
PageLocked(page) ? "K" : " ",
PageError(page) ? "E" : " ",
PageReferenced(page) ? "R" : " ",
PageUptodate(page) ? "U" : " ",
PageDirty(page) ? "D" : " ",
PageLRU(page) ? "L" : " ",
PageActive(page) ? "A" : " ",
PageSlab(page) ? "S" : " ",
PageWriteback(page) ? "W" : " ",
PageCompound(page) ? "C" : " ",
PageSwapCache(page) ? "B" : " ",
PageMappedToDisk(page) ? "M" : " ");
page->flags, &page->flags);
if (ret >= count)
goto err;
......@@ -924,19 +924,6 @@ static void walk_zones_in_node(struct seq_file *m, pg_data_t *pgdat,
static char * const migratetype_names[MIGRATE_TYPES] = {
static void frag_show_print(struct seq_file *m, pg_data_t *pgdat,
struct zone *zone)
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