Commit c713216d authored by Mel Gorman's avatar Mel Gorman Committed by Linus Torvalds

[PATCH] Introduce mechanism for registering active regions of memory

At a basic level, architectures define structures to record where active
ranges of page frames are located.  Once located, the code to calculate zone
sizes and holes in each architecture is very similar.  Some of this zone and
hole sizing code is difficult to read for no good reason.  This set of patches
eliminates the similar-looking architecture-specific code.

The patches introduce a mechanism where architectures register where the
active ranges of page frames are with add_active_range().  When all areas have
been discovered, free_area_init_nodes() is called to initialise the pgdat and
zones.  The zone sizes and holes are then calculated in an architecture
independent manner.

Patch 1 introduces the mechanism for registering and initialising PFN ranges
Patch 2 changes ppc to use the mechanism - 139 arch-specific LOC removed
Patch 3 changes x86 to use the mechanism - 136 arch-specific LOC removed
Patch 4 changes x86_64 to use the mechanism - 74 arch-specific LOC removed
Patch 5 changes ia64 to use the mechanism - 52 arch-specific LOC removed
Patch 6 accounts for mem_map as a memory hole as the pages are not reclaimable.
	It adjusts the watermarks slightly

Tony Luck has successfully tested for ia64 on Itanium with tiger_defconfig,
gensparse_defconfig and defconfig.  Bob Picco has also tested and debugged on
IA64.  Jack Steiner successfully boot tested on a mammoth SGI IA64-based
machine.  These were on patches against 2.6.17-rc1 and release 3 of these
patches but there have been no ia64-changes since release 3.

There are differences in the zone sizes for x86_64 as the arch-specific code
for x86_64 accounts the kernel image and the starting mem_maps as memory holes
but the architecture-independent code accounts the memory as present.

The big benefit of this set of patches is a sizable reduction of
architecture-specific code, some of which is very hairy.  There should be a
greater reduction when other architectures use the same mechanisms for zone
and hole sizing but I lack the hardware to test on.

Additional credit;
	Dave Hansen for the initial suggestion and comments on early patches
	Andy Whitcroft for reviewing early versions and catching numerous
	Tony Luck for testing and debugging on IA64
	Bob Picco for fixing bugs related to pfn registration, reviewing a
		number of patch revisions, providing a number of suggestions
		on future direction and testing heavily
	Jack Steiner and Robin Holt for testing on IA64 and clarifying
		issues related to memory holes
	Yasunori for testing on IA64
	Andi Kleen for reviewing and feeding back about x86_64
	Christian Kujau for providing valuable information related to ACPI
		problems on x86_64 and testing potential fixes

This patch:

Define the structure to represent an active range of page frames within a node
in an architecture independent manner.  Architectures are expected to register
active ranges of PFNs using add_active_range(nid, start_pfn, end_pfn) and call
free_area_init_nodes() passing the PFNs of the end of each zone.
Signed-off-by: default avatarMel Gorman <>
Signed-off-by: default avatarBob Picco <>
Cc: Dave Hansen <>
Cc: Andy Whitcroft <>
Cc: Andi Kleen <>
Cc: Benjamin Herrenschmidt <>
Cc: Paul Mackerras <>
Cc: "Keith Mannthey" <>
Cc: "Luck, Tony" <>
Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <>
Cc: Yasunori Goto <>
Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <>
Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <>
parent 2bd0cfbd
......@@ -937,6 +937,53 @@ extern void free_area_init(unsigned long * zones_size);
extern void free_area_init_node(int nid, pg_data_t *pgdat,
unsigned long * zones_size, unsigned long zone_start_pfn,
unsigned long *zholes_size);
* With CONFIG_ARCH_POPULATES_NODE_MAP set, an architecture may initialise its
* zones, allocate the backing mem_map and account for memory holes in a more
* architecture independent manner. This is a substitute for creating the
* zone_sizes[] and zholes_size[] arrays and passing them to
* free_area_init_node()
* An architecture is expected to register range of page frames backed by
* physical memory with add_active_range() before calling
* free_area_init_nodes() passing in the PFN each zone ends at. At a basic
* usage, an architecture is expected to do something like
* unsigned long max_zone_pfns[MAX_NR_ZONES] = {max_dma, max_normal_pfn,
* max_highmem_pfn};
* for_each_valid_physical_page_range()
* add_active_range(node_id, start_pfn, end_pfn)
* free_area_init_nodes(max_zone_pfns);
* If the architecture guarantees that there are no holes in the ranges
* registered with add_active_range(), free_bootmem_active_regions()
* will call free_bootmem_node() for each registered physical page range.
* Similarly sparse_memory_present_with_active_regions() calls
* memory_present() for each range when SPARSEMEM is enabled.
* See mm/page_alloc.c for more information on each function exposed by
extern void free_area_init_nodes(unsigned long *max_zone_pfn);
extern void add_active_range(unsigned int nid, unsigned long start_pfn,
unsigned long end_pfn);
extern void shrink_active_range(unsigned int nid, unsigned long old_end_pfn,
unsigned long new_end_pfn);
extern void remove_all_active_ranges(void);
extern unsigned long absent_pages_in_range(unsigned long start_pfn,
unsigned long end_pfn);
extern void get_pfn_range_for_nid(unsigned int nid,
unsigned long *start_pfn, unsigned long *end_pfn);
extern unsigned long find_min_pfn_with_active_regions(void);
extern unsigned long find_max_pfn_with_active_regions(void);
extern void free_bootmem_with_active_regions(int nid,
unsigned long max_low_pfn);
extern void sparse_memory_present_with_active_regions(int nid);
extern int early_pfn_to_nid(unsigned long pfn);
extern void memmap_init_zone(unsigned long, int, unsigned long, unsigned long);
extern void setup_per_zone_pages_min(void);
extern void mem_init(void);
......@@ -305,6 +305,13 @@ struct zonelist {
struct zone *zones[MAX_NUMNODES * MAX_NR_ZONES + 1]; // NULL delimited
struct node_active_region {
unsigned long start_pfn;
unsigned long end_pfn;
int nid;
* The pg_data_t structure is used in machines with CONFIG_DISCONTIGMEM
......@@ -518,7 +525,8 @@ extern struct zone *next_zone(struct zone *zone);
#define early_pfn_to_nid(nid) (0UL)
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