• Linus Torvalds's avatar
    Merge tag 'spdx_identifiers-4.14-rc8' of... · ead75150
    Linus Torvalds authored
    Merge tag 'spdx_identifiers-4.14-rc8' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/gregkh/driver-core
    Pull initial SPDX identifiers from Greg KH:
     "License cleanup: add SPDX license identifiers to some files
      Many source files in the tree are missing licensing information, which
      makes it harder for compliance tools to determine the correct license.
      By default all files without license information are under the default
      license of the kernel, which is GPL version 2.
      Update the files which contain no license information with the
      'GPL-2.0' SPDX license identifier. The SPDX identifier is a legally
      binding shorthand, which can be used instead of the full boiler plate
      This patch is based on work done by Thomas Gleixner and Kate Stewart
      and Philippe Ombredanne.
      How this work was done:
      Patches were generated and checked against linux-4.14-rc6 for a subset
      of the use cases:
       - file had no licensing information it it.
       - file was a */uapi/* one with no licensing information in it,
       - file was a */uapi/* one with existing licensing information,
      Further patches will be generated in subsequent months to fix up cases
      where non-standard license headers were used, and references to
      license had to be inferred by heuristics based on keywords.
      The analysis to determine which SPDX License Identifier to be applied
      to a file was done in a spreadsheet of side by side results from of
      the output of two independent scanners (ScanCode & Windriver)
      producing SPDX tag:value files created by Philippe Ombredanne.
      Philippe prepared the base worksheet, and did an initial spot review
      of a few 1000 files.
      The 4.13 kernel was the starting point of the analysis with 60,537
      files assessed. Kate Stewart did a file by file comparison of the
      scanner results in the spreadsheet to determine which SPDX license
      identifier(s) to be applied to the file. She confirmed any
      determination that was not immediately clear with lawyers working with
      the Linux Foundation.
      Criteria used to select files for SPDX license identifier tagging was:
       - Files considered eligible had to be source code files.
       - Make and config files were included as candidates if they contained
         >5 lines of source
       - File already had some variant of a license header in it (even if <5
      All documentation files were explicitly excluded.
      The following heuristics were used to determine which SPDX license
      identifiers to apply.
       - when both scanners couldn't find any license traces, file was
         considered to have no license information in it, and the top level
         COPYING file license applied.
         For non */uapi/* files that summary was:
           SPDX license identifier                            # files
           GPL-2.0                                              11139
         and resulted in the first patch in this series.
         If that file was a */uapi/* path one, it was "GPL-2.0 WITH
         Linux-syscall-note" otherwise it was "GPL-2.0". Results of that
           SPDX license identifier                            # files
           GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note                        930
         and resulted in the second patch in this series.
       - if a file had some form of licensing information in it, and was one
         of the */uapi/* ones, it was denoted with the Linux-syscall-note if
         any GPL family license was found in the file or had no licensing in
         it (per prior point). Results summary:
           SPDX license identifier                            # files
           GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note                       270
           GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                      169
           ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-2-Clause)    21
           ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause)    17
           LGPL-2.1+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                      15
           GPL-1.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                       14
           ((GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause)    5
           LGPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note                       4
           LGPL-2.1 WITH Linux-syscall-note                        3
           ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR MIT)              3
           ((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) AND MIT)             1
         and that resulted in the third patch in this series.
       - when the two scanners agreed on the detected license(s), that
         became the concluded license(s).
       - when there was disagreement between the two scanners (one detected
         a license but the other didn't, or they both detected different
         licenses) a manual inspection of the file occurred.
       - In most cases a manual inspection of the information in the file
         resulted in a clear resolution of the license that should apply
         (and which scanner probably needed to revisit its heuristics).
       - When it was not immediately clear, the license identifier was
         confirmed with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
       - If there was any question as to the appropriate license identifier,
         the file was flagged for further research and to be revisited later
         in time.
      In total, over 70 hours of logged manual review was done on the
      spreadsheet to determine the SPDX license identifiers to apply to the
      source files by Kate, Philippe, Thomas and, in some cases,
      confirmation by lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
      Kate also obtained a third independent scan of the 4.13 code base from
      FOSSology, and compared selected files where the other two scanners
      disagreed against that SPDX file, to see if there was new insights.
      The Windriver scanner is based on an older version of FOSSology in
      part, so they are related.
      Thomas did random spot checks in about 500 files from the spreadsheets
      for the uapi headers and agreed with SPDX license identifier in the
      files he inspected. For the non-uapi files Thomas did random spot
      checks in about 15000 files.
      In initial set of patches against 4.14-rc6, 3 files were found to have
      copy/paste license identifier errors, and have been fixed to reflect
      the correct identifier.
      Additionally Philippe spent 10 hours this week doing a detailed manual
      inspection and review of the 12,461 patched files from the initial
      patch version early this week with:
       - a full scancode scan run, collecting the matched texts, detected
         license ids and scores
       - reviewing anything where there was a license detected (about 500+
         files) to ensure that the applied SPDX license was correct
       - reviewing anything where there was no detection but the patch
         license was not GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note to ensure that the
         applied SPDX license was correct
      This produced a worksheet with 20 files needing minor correction. This
      worksheet was then exported into 3 different .csv files for the
      different types of files to be modified.
      These .csv files were then reviewed by Greg. Thomas wrote a script to
      parse the csv files and add the proper SPDX tag to the file, in the
      format that the file expected. This script was further refined by Greg
      based on the output to detect more types of files automatically and to
      distinguish between header and source .c files (which need different
      comment types.) Finally Greg ran the script using the .csv files to
      generate the patches.
    Reviewed-by: default avatarKate Stewart <kstewart@linuxfoundation.org>
    Reviewed-by: default avatarPhilippe Ombredanne <pombredanne@nexb.com>
    Reviewed-by: default avatarThomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
      Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>"
    * tag 'spdx_identifiers-4.14-rc8' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/gregkh/driver-core:
      License cleanup: add SPDX license identifier to uapi header files with a license
      License cleanup: add SPDX license identifier to uapi header files with no license
      License cleanup: add SPDX GPL-2.0 license identifier to files with no license
Makefile 58.4 KB